Wikipedia 10K Redux by Reagle from Starling archive. Bugs abound!!!

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Logic, or the study of the principles of proper reasoning, was pioneered by Aristotle.
Although it is possible that Aristotle himself had been taught by someone else, the
earliest study of reasoning can be attributed to Aristotle.  Two of the most important principles of logic are TheLawOfNoncontradiction and TheLawOfExcludedMiddle.

Logic as a science defines the structure of statement and argument and defines formulae 
by which these are codified.  Implicit in a study of logic is the understanding of what 
makes a good argument and what arguments are fallacious.  Students of classical logic were 
often made to memorize certain argument forms so that they could more easily create better 
arguments and disprove weaker ones thrown against them.  The Jesuits emphasized this so 
highly, that their students were required to take part in a structured argument session 
with their peers.

The ultimate goal of logic, if it can be said to have a goal, is valid argumentation (see ValidIty).