Wikipedia 10K Redux by Reagle from Starling archive. Bugs abound!!!

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LoGic

Logic, or the study of the principles of proper resoning, was pioneered by Aristotle.
Although it is possible that Aristotle himself had been tought by someone else, the
earliest records we have of the codification of studying reasoning can be attributed to 
Aristotle.

Logic as a science defines the structure of statement and argument, and defines formulae 
by which these are codified.  Implicit in a study of logic is the understanding of what 
makes a good argument, and what arguments are fallacious.  Students of classical logic were 
often made to memorize certain argument forms so that they could more easily create better 
arguments and disprove weaker ones thrown against them.  The Jesuits emphasized this so 
highly, that their students were required to take part in a structured argument session 
with their peers.

The ultimate goal of Logic is clarity.  By making correct reasoning into a science, 
Logic seeks to put an end to the indecisiveness of argument and statement.