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Constructive Feedback

Feedback is information that helps the learner span the gap towards their performance and their objective; it is informative rather than judgmental or evaluative.

Constructive feedback is specific, considerate, and does not attribute poor performance to internal causes. Destructive feedback violates these principles and can reduce recipients' confidence, self-set goals and in impair recipient performance.

Reference: Robert A. Baron, 1988, Negative effects of destructive criticism: impact on conflict, self-efficacy, and task performance.

Principles of good feedback

  1. Helps clarify what good performance is
  2. Facilitate the development of self-assessment (reflection)
  3. Delivers high-quality information to the recipient
  4. Encourages dialogue
  5. Provides opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance
Reference: David J. Nicol, Debra Macfarlane-Dick, 2006, Formative assessment and self-regulated learning a model and seven principles of good feedback practice.

Tips for giving feedback

Feedback should:

Reference: Jack Ende, 1983, Feedback and clinical medical education.

Tips for receiving feedback

Reference: Patti Hawthaway, 1990, Giving and receiving criticism: Your key to interpersonal success.

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