Leilani Aggarwal <aggarwal.l>

Hi professor, here is the URL for my second reading response page:

Julia Cabezas <cabezas.j>

Hello Prof. Reagle,

Hopes this email finds you well. Here is my reading response for today and the full set of reading responses.

Home Page: Reading Responses Set 2 Page: <>


Apr 16 Tue - Pushback

With so many technology tools and the widespread connectivity society can experience daily, a new outlook known as “pushback” emerges. Pushback is a phenomenon that refers to the “expressions of resistance to and saturation with communication technologies and information overload” (Morrison & Gomez, 2014). In other words, it’s a growing sentiment and desire for detachment within a part of the online community, which believes life is better when people take control over their technology use. According to a study done by Morrison and Gomez (2014), some of the motivations behind pushback include emotional dissatisfaction, addiction, privacy, and the need to take control. The movement’s followers usually engage in behavioral adaptation and tech control, such as locking their phones away routinely or deactivating social media accounts. Contrary to past beliefs, Morrison and Gomez (2014) found that pushback is felt across all age groups, from “digital natives,” those who grew up with the Internet, to “digital immigrants,” those who adapted to it later on in their lives.

Pushback is a direct consequence of “evertime,” the event where “technology users can and often are continously connected to the Internet and its communication services” (Morrison & Gomez, 2014). Being instantly connected at all hours of the day by communication technologies changes people’s relationships, often putting more stress and pressure on users. For example, parents have become dependent on evertime to track their childrem, which pressures both parties, saying “You follow your kids now… we’re the helicopter parent generation” (Vadukul, 2022). For kids who want to quit technology all together, like 17 year old Logan Lane the founder of Luddite Club, this is what keeps them back from full “pushback.” Her high school organization, the Luddite Club, “promotes a lifestyle of self-liberation from social media and technology” (Vadukul, 2022).

The Morrison and Gomez (2014) study examines the presence of pushback in places like popular news media and blogs. In popular news media, there are “personal accounts of disenchantment with technology” (Morrison & Gomez, 2014). The accounts are covered by the press, where people report their “virtual suicide” (Morrison & Gomez, 2014). This reminds me of the many times Selena Gomez has left Instagram. Whenever she is involved in some online controversy, she takes to Instagram to release a statement saying she needs time offline to work on herself. However, just a few days later she returns to Instagram and starts posting again as if nothing happened. The accounts of pushback in blogs “address the audience as peers, discussing experiences in a reflective way… to those who they presume might share the same concerns” (Morrison & Gomez, 2014). This form of pushback expression reminds me of a virtual Luddite Club, meeting as a community every week to discuss disconnection. When reading about the Luddite Club, precisely the parent’s argument of tracking their children, I wondered: If the world is so heavily reliant on technology and phones, could complete pushback ever be possible?

Stefany Melo castillo <melocastillo.s>

Link: Reading Responses (Set 2) - HackMD

tags: CDA # Reading Responses (Set 2) - Checklist for a [good reading response](https://re


Apr 16 Tue - Pushback

Feeling overwhelmed by the never-ending stream of information on your screen? In their article, Stacey L. Morrison and Ricardo Gomez examine the growing trend of people resisting constant connection to digital devices like smartphones and computers. They explore the reasons behind this shift, identifying primary motivations such as dissatisfaction with excessive screen time and concerns about privacy. Also, they outline five common strategies individuals use to limit their technology use: adjusting their habits, agreeing with others to limit use, using tech solutions to control usage, completely cutting off from tech, or denying any issue. The authors conducted extensive research, analyzing various sources from personal blogs to academic studies, to gain more insight into this phenomenon. Morrison and Gomez advocate for further research to explore the connections between these motivations and actions and to better understand the relationship between technology and privacy.

As I read the article, I reflected on my own experiences and recalled instances where I personally felt the need to push back against constant online connectivity. One approach I took was to stop using any social media for a month. I gave myself a social media detox because I noticed I was spending too much time on my phone rather than investing in hobbies and self-improvement. During my break from social media, I could focus better on my work and other stuff I needed to do. I wasn’t distracted by notifications or scrolling through feeds. I got more things done and felt more productive. Stefany Melo (She/Her/Hers) Northeastern University e-mail: | phone: (857) 241-7603

Jacob Lopez <lopez.jac>

Home page: Reading Response #5, Set #2 : Markdown:

Apr 16 - Pushback

Did you know that in 2013, “61% of Facebook users have taken a voluntary break from using the site at one time or another” (Morrison & Gomez, 2014)? It’s interesting to note that despite our increasingly connected world, many people are choosing to take breaks from technology.

Within our day and age, many technology users can be found constantly connected to the internet. Primary factors such as emotional dissatisfaction, external values, taking control, addiction, and privacy are what are leading thousands to cut down on their technology use. This is described as “pushback behavior” (Morrison, Gomez, 2014) which formal tech users are relying on to reach a greater sense of personalized balance that they feel they have lost through frequent tech use. The Luddite Club is a perfect example of a group practicing pushback as they are described as “a high school group that promotes a lifestyle of self-liberation from social media and technology” (Vadukul, 2022). Some group members like Lola Shub were dedicated enough to switch primarily to using a flip phone stating that “I started using my brain. It made me observe myself as a person” (Vadukul, 2022). Although this seemingly unproblematic movement is one fond of many, I question what downsides may come with denying technology in a predominately technology-based society.

One question I ask is when discussing Digital language and generations, a topic we have discussed recently in class, how do groups like the Luddite Club hold up in a society that relies on technology and its benefits? For example, when discussing external views on the club a member resorts to the possibility that “some of us need technology to be included in society. Some of us need a phone” (Vadukul, 2022). It certainly is important to find time away from our screens to prioritize mental and even physical health, but leaving it out fully may bring social differences between us. A parent from one of the club members explains “we don’t know where our kid is. You follow your kids now. You track them” (Vadukul, 2022) emphasizing the good that technology and the internet may bring to our lives. Overall, I question how permanent our changing society is and if it is safe for those to live outside the social norm of being a tech user.

Alexandra Madaras <madaras.a>

Hi Professor Reagle,

Here is my second set of reading responses and my markdown for the response due tomorrow.

Thanks! Alex

Apr 16 - Pushback

Every finals week, the tasks on my calendar start picking up a new tagline. After each one, a paranthetical appears:

I’m hyperaware that the presence of my phone around me while I’m trying to buckle down and focus is incredibly detrimental. And while I don’t go full Luddite, I do consciously place my phone much further out of reach than I do on a normal day, trying to prioritize unbroken focus rather than constant distraction. By Morrison and Gomez’s (2014) standards, my “pushback” is probably mostly about taking back control. In their review, Morrison and Gomez identify four other main types of pushback against the constant state of being online: emotional dissastisfaction, external values, addiction, and privacy. At one time or another, I’ve experienced feelings of wanting to push back due to all five. The researchers studied both users’ experiences through their own words in blog and social media posts as well as academic sources and found these clusters that seem to explain why users are tryng to step back from constant Internet use. The “Luddite” teens discussed in Vadukul’s 2013 New York Times piece seem to fit into the movement of pushback that Morrison and Gomez describe, with club members describing everything from addiction (“I became completely consumed”) to values-based withdrawal (“we’re not just meant to be confined to buildings and work.”)

I agreed with Morrison and Gomez in that it was surprising to see so little mention of privacy concerns in both the general overview of pushback themes online and in the Luddite teens’ reasoning, too. I suppose the lack of transparency into surveillance and data gathering practices is the point However, for me personally, understanding how my data is being scraped and sold and why provides a much more holistic understanding of why platforms are built to keep me on them for longer and gives me a political motivation to reduce my interaction with them when the vague negative emotions can’t overcome the compulsion. I think feelings of self-blame and shame that come with Internet “addiction,” overuse, or lack of control only deepen the spiral of dependency on platforms, whereas externalizing the source of our frustration not only relieves the emotional burden but accurately calls out the companies and people that are pushing endless scrolling, personalized algorithms, and specially-tailored ads as a way to fund modern techno-capitalism. Though it doesn’t always interrupt less than ideal patterns of behavior with Internet use, identifying who to blame is incredibly important for empowered use of technology, and I hope we see a shift to more privacy and values-minded pushback.

Allison McCluskey <mccluskey.a>

Hello Professor,

Here is the link to my reading response set 2 page:

I have already sent you all five of these markdowns in previous submissions. Thank you.


Allison McCluskey (she/her) Candidate for Bachelor of Science, Psychology Northeastern University, Class of 2025

Alexis Moore <moore.alexi>

Sanya Parikh <parikh.s>

Hi Professor,

Below is the markdown of my final reading response and the link to my reading response HackMD page.

Home Page: Reading Response:


Apr 16 Tue - Pushback

Smartphones have allowed us to remain constantly connected and in communication. The concept of pushing back against this constant connectivity has become a more prevalent trend, showcased by the emergence of groups like the Luddite club. According to Morrison & Gomez (2014), the Luddite club is a group of high schoolers who promote a lifestyle of “self-liberation from social media and technology”. Members of this group distance themselves from smartphones, a nice idea that proves to be challenging.

Logan Lane, a member of the Luddite club, exemplifies the challenges associated with balancing modern media and technology and the desire to be disconnected, or “pushback” against it. As a high school student, Logan’s parents are naturally concerned about her daily whereabouts. Though they initially appreciated Logan ditching her phone and regularly returning home for dinner to discuss what she did throughout her day, they quickly became distressed by their inability to check in on their daughter, especially when she went abroad.

Morrison & Gomez (2014) write about Logan’s parents being part of the “helicopter parent generation”, who are used to the conveniences offered by smartphones. The information and capabilities that come with the use of smartphones make it almost impossible to go backwards, and it makes sense that we grow distressed when that is taken away from us. Though a flip phone is a good temporary solution to this issue, it doesn’t quite solve every problem.

Overall, these two readings highlight a key trend where individuals who once embraced and encouraged connectivity are now resisting the idea of being permanently contactable. This prompts questions about the right way to balance these two things and whether there is a right way. In a digital age, is it even feasible to consider moving backwards?

Thank you, Sanya

Ryder Paulson <paulson.r>



April 14 - Pushback

For decades the internet has grown in its userbase, often at an exponential rate, but in recent years there has begun to be pushback. Both digital natives and digital nomads appear to experience negative side effects from high internet usage, but their responses are different. In their article “Pushback: Expressions of resistance to the ‘evertime’ of constant online connectivity” authors Stacey Morrison and Ricardo Gomez examine how there is as increasing push for people to reduce their internet usage. Despite digital natives generally having a positive feelings towards social media, a Stanford study found a correlation between the happiness of teens and usage of Facebook. With increasing sentiment against the use of internet, the authors identify 5 primary reasons including: Emotional dissatisfaction, political or moral conflicts, wanting to take back control of their attention, a feeling of addiction, and a fear of privacy.

My personal experience with people my age is opposite to what the article states. There have been many times where I have to change how I contact a friend because they post that they are deleting Instagram of Snapchat for a week. This did however align with the article in terms of the reasoning because I most often saw it cited that my peers reason was emotional dissatisfaction. As AI becomes more popular I believe it will drive a further rejection or further consciousness of technology. Often real life reflects our media, and with artificial intelligence being a major symbol of technological innovation. Pushback against AI has been depicted since the 1965 with Frank Herbert’s Dune where all computing-like tasks are done by people because there was an AI revolution which led to the banning of computers. Right now technology presents fears because Big Companies are able to abuse its powers, but in the future we may try to avoid technology for more existential reasons. While some may criticize pushback against technology because it can stifle innovation, pushback represents caution and it is important to remain cautious when one is on the edge of innovation.

Sophia Prendergast <prendergast.s>

Homepage: Reading Responses (Set 2): Markdown:

Apr 16 Tue - Pushback

Our collective timeline as a society continues to become increasingly dominated by digital connectivity, where every part of our lives seems so intertwined with technology, that rebellion is bound to occur. But this rebellion is not led by your stereotypical revolutionaries with their physical weapons; it is led by individuals and groups who have grown disappointed with the promises of technology. They desire something more authentic; some may say simpler.

Stacey Morrison explores the phenomenon of pushback in their article “Pushback: Expressions of resistance to the ‘evertime’ of constant online connectivity.” Her article exposes our tech-savvy society by revealing a surprising truth: emotional dissatisfaction, rather than practical concerns, that fuels the resistance against technology. The article further examines the various behaviors individuals adopt in response to their dissatisfaction with technology. These behaviors include adaptation, where users modify their technology use to better fit their needs, and social agreements, where groups collectively agree to restrict technology use in certain contexts. Other strategies include tech solutions, such as downgrading to simpler devices or implementing screen time or parental controls, and radical solutions like complete disconnection from the internet.

The Luddite Club is a perfect example of a group of teenagers in Brooklyn who are pushing back by restricting technology with social agreements and downgrading. Led by Logan Lane, these teens reject the confinements of modern technology in favor of analog experiences and human connection. Their weekly gathering in Prospect Park is evidence of the power of simplicity, where drawing, reading classic literature, and engaging in meaningful conversations take precedence over likes, notifications, and shares. Their philosophy challenges societal norms and raises critical questions about privilege, mental health, and genuine happiness.

Reflecting on these readings reminded me of a few summers ago when I had this longing desire to power down my iPhone and only use a flip phone and my camera. I never ended up actually doing it, even though that’s what I talked about all school year long. However, I do want to try it out sometime soon. Although I didn’t follow through, I did set restrictions on my phone, and I stayed on top of limiting myself by listening to the restrictions when they appeared. I noticed a significant increase in my mood when I was on social media less, however, now I do not have any restrictions on my phone…I should really enable them again.

Some questions that came to mind as I was reading the material were:

Joshua Shapiro <>

Good Morning! I hope you had a nice weekend — below are hyperlinks for my second set of reading responses, as well as my homepage (just in case). Responses URL Homepage URL


Joshua Shapiro

Northeastern University, D’Amore-McKim School of Business

Candidate for BS in Business Administration - Finance

Minor in Communication Studies

E: | M: (617) 835-9322

Riya Singh <singh.riya1>

Home Page:

Reading Response Set 2:

Markdown (only for ‘pushback’ reading response:

March 16 : Pushback

These readings collectively addressed a lot of the discussions we had, presenting them as great concluding remarks for the course. Through this course, we have seen the good and the bad sides of the internet and technology in the world today. As time moves on, sadly, the bad is beginning to overshadow the good, the insights in the readings being evidence of that. As the article in the New York Times highlights, it’s more of a mental and emotional toll on the newer generations than anything else. Peer pressure has always existed but now with the hyper-connectedness of the world, this pressure doesn’t have to be limited to your small friend group at school but can spread across the world.

Our previous topic of digital language also touched upon the social expectations that come with the rise of the internet and its trends. Take social media for example, before even coming to Northeastern people were able to make group chats with incoming students, socialize to make friends and plan activities before they even landed in Boston. Unfortunately, this does not account for all students, just the majority of them who use the advanced connectivity and reach of the internet. Those who do not wish to or don’t know how to contribute and participate in such behaviors are at a loss, restricted and lack a sense of belonging before even stepping foot in the university they have chosen. Outcomes like these can lead people to become pressurized to partake in online interactions to make online/ social media connections.

Speaking more about the advanced connectivity is the journal article by Morrison et al, delving into the Twitter and Manchester riots incident in 2011. That was more than a decade ago, and technology is only developing more and more as the world moves forward. Does access to the internet and its information, whether news or not, help? Yes, of course, it keeps people informed doing the job a newspaper once did. Nonetheless, with that, the likelihood of creating filter bubbles, an echo chamber and biased individuals does increase. Secondly, it creates a world with a lack of privacy and more space for chaos. Of course, everyone should be informed about what is happening in the world, but to what extent are we okay with publicizing every incident, every experience, and basically every aspect of our lives? I think that’s where the topic for this week’s readings comes in, pushback. Discussions like the ones we have in class shed light on the consequences and repercussions we face with increased internet usage and connectivity through it, making people reflect on their own choices. I believe because of realizations and reflections we are finally seeing acceptance and adaptability of pushback through prevention tactics, an example being detox periods that were spoken about in the New York Times article, which has worked very well for me in the past as well.

Natalia Roca Ward <rocaward.n>

Hi Prof. Reagle,

I hope you are doing well. Here is my fifth reading response.

Home Page:

Reading Response:

Markdown: Apr 16 Tue - Pushback My father regales me with stories of when he was a kid, and while I think he makes most of it up, it does make me realise how differently he has grown up versus how I have grown up due to technology. When he was a kid, his mother would tell him to turn off the TV and go outside and play, and how all the kids in the neighborhood would meet outside at the same time ready to play games. He talks about a time before there was the internet, and that is difficult for me to even conceive. How did he get anything done? I used to feel sorry for him, that he and his generation had to grow up without all the technology that makes my life “easier” and “better”, but I have increasingly been asking myself if it is really easier and better for my generation. Both articles make me think that maybe I’m not alone in having those doubts.

“Pushback” is a research study done in 2013 where they analyzed the pushback in being connected permanently to technology, “everytime” or simply all of the time. This is a rejection of the idea that everyone needs to always be available and how technology has made this a reality. The study found that people resisted this push to always be available and connected in a variety of ways and for a variety of reasons. This pushback not only came from older generations but also the younger generation that has always been exposed to technology. The two common elements across the pushing back were “a) dissatisfaction or disillusionment with one or more types of technology and/or social media, and b) the users’ desire to pull away from technology usage in some way” (Morrison & Gomez, 2014).

Luddite discusses the emergence of a club made up of New York high schoolers who actively embraced the idea of avoiding technology and social media. They would meet in a park with no phone or only a flip phone and would spend their time together reading, painting, carving, drawing, or simply just listening to the wind. While it was difficult to get kids to join the club, many joined because of how social media made them feel. One said that during the lockdown, “I became completely consumed… I couldn’t not post a good picture if I had one. And I had this online personality of, ‘I don’t care,’ but I actually did.” (Vadukul, 2022). The interesting thing is that some parents, while admiring the change, actually required their kids to at least have a flip phone because of the need to remain in contact, but parents are now used to tracking their kids, “So when she got rid of the iPhone, that presented a problem for us, initially (Vadukul, 2022).” While the kids enjoyed interacting directly face-to-face with other kids, the lack of connection made it difficult for them to remain in touch.

Thank you!


Natalia Roca Ward Northeastern University Candidate for B.A. in International Affairs Major, Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Minor, and Digital Communications Minor | (857) 265-5026

Xinran Xu <xu.xinr>