Online Communities

COMM 4625 <2022-FA> Office hours Content
TU/FR 1:35–3:15pm
Intl Village 014
TU/FR at 15:30+ and/or email to schedule
Prof. Reagle, <j.reagle>
Comm Studies, 215 Holmes Hall
Tip: Enter at 41A Leon St.

Course objectives

Can online communities be “real”? Yes! People use online platforms to coalesce via enduring group identities, activities, and cultures. Upon successful completion of this course you will be able to explain the dynamics of online communities including joining, governance, conflict, and exit—with scholarly readings complemented by contemporary cases. Furthermore, you will have experience with the development and challenges of online communities via hands-on interventions (including contributions to Wikipedia and an experiment with your own online networks). Our orientation will be that of asking how can one design successful online communities? This could be valuable to you as a participant, as a supporter of a social cause, or as part of your employment. Successful completion of this course enables one to:


Active learning and the Web

“I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.” – Confucius

This is an active learning course meaning that you will be partaking in class and group discussions, participating in class exercises, and sharing and relating what we learn to the larger world.

I also make much use of the Web. For instance, this syllabus is a Web page that I update; I expect you to bookmark it and to follow links. (If you find a broken link or typo, let me know!) You can easily find things on this page with ⌘+f. You can open links in new tabs with control-click. We will also make use of Google Docs. In emails I often use markdown conventions and respond below your quoted (‘>’) text.

Academic policies

In short, come to class on time and with the readings and assignments completed; be respectful and willing to collaborate. There are no provisions for missed exams or late assignments.

In general, if you have an issue, such as needing an accommodation for a religious obligation or disability, do not plead afterwards. Instead, beforehand, offer proposals that show initiative and a willingness to work.

Academic Integrity is of utmost importance: “The promotion of independent and original scholarship ensures that students derive the most from their educational experience and their pursuit of knowledge.” Violations include cheating, plagiarism, and participating in or encouraging dishonesty. If you cheat on an exam, you will receive zero credit and be referred to the Office of Student Conduct. If you plagiarize seven or more words in a row, the same will follow.

We sometimes use devices in class as part of an activity, but the default policy is for gadgets to be silenced and put away. If you want to use a device throughout the course, email me a device proposal with your intended usage. Device users might also be called upon you to perform tasks such as looking things up or taking collaborative notes. Deviations from classroom professionalism and respect may result in dismissal from class and demerits against your grade. See full course policies for more detail.


There are 1000 points at stake over the term. This is converted to letter grades based on thresholds, without rounding. For example, 870 is a B+; 869 is not. Due dates are included in the schedule.

Because this is a upper-level course, I give greater freedom than in introduction classes where I require things like essay proposals. Being prepared and getting good feedback are still essential to doing well, I just don’t make you do it: you have greater freedom to do poorly. Also, because this is a capstone, I’d like for you to have work products you can be proud of. So if you have a creative idea, please let me know!

Writing requirements

Assignments must be double-spaced, 12 point font, 1-inch margins. (One page contains approximately 250 words.) Pages must be numbered. Citations must be in the APA style. No APA cover page is required. Include your name.

I recommend your writing be reviewed by two peers relative to the writing rubric. Make use of Hacker’s Pocket Manual and my writing tips handout. On the due date, assignments are due at start of class via Canvas. If you have permission to revise a written assignment for re-assessment, please see these revision instructions.

Grading Rubric

Communication Studies courses are expected, on average, to have a GPA of no more than a 3.3 (B+); this means those receiving an A or A- are in the minority. The course rubric notes that “A” students have all of the following attributes.

  1. show mastery in assignments. Their work demonstrates impressive understanding of readings, discussions, themes and ideas. It is fluid, clear, analytical, well-organized and grammatically polished. Reasoning and logic are well-grounded and examples precise.
  2. have virtually perfect attendance. Their commitment to the class resembles that of the teacher.
  3. are prepared for class. They always read assignments and participate fully. Their attention to detail is such that they occasionally catch the teacher in a mistake.
  4. show interest in the class. They look up or dig out what they don’t understand. They often ask interesting questions or make thoughtful comments.
  5. have retentive minds. They are able to connect past learning with the present.
  6. have a winning attitude. They have the determination, initiative, and self-discipline to succeed.

Please review the grading scale, participation assessment, and writing rubric.


Many links to my public wiki are found through-out this syllabus (remember, ⌘+f is your friend), but I’ve gathered some of the most important ones below.


Most readings are linked to from this page, if not check this zip file.

You should also have a copy of a college writing handbook, such as:

Like other skills, bibliography is something you learn to do well. Technology can make it easier, I recommend the free browser-based Zotero. NU makes RefWorks and EndNote available to students.

Note that for selections, I specify the chapter (ch=) or pages (pp=) to read.


Sep 09 Fri - Intro

We learn each other’s names, review the course objectives, and learn the basics of editing Wikipedia.

Bring a mnemonic that connects your name with a memorable image: “Imagine me …” I could say: “Imagine Prof. Reagle being chased by beagles.”

Wikipedia task 1

  • Before class, start the Wikipedia Policies, the Sandbox, Talk Pages, and Watchlists and the Editing Basics trainings (20 + 10 + 20 = 50 minutes). Upon completion, you will have created an account, made edits in a sandbox, and learned the basic rules of the Wikipedia community. I recommend you add the pages Help:Cheatsheet and Help:Wiki markup as the first (of many to come) bookmarks in a new folder on your browser. If you are in need of quick help, head over to the English Wikipedia chat channel.

  • Enroll on our Wikipedia dashboard. Following the “enroll” link should work, if not, “Join course” on our WP dashboard—under “Actions”—using passcode “flxjhyzo”.

  • On your user page introduce yourself to the community—but you need not disclose personally identifiable information. Consider adding some userboxes. Make sure to include the following:

    As part of [[User:Reagle]]'s online community class, I will be contributing to Wikipedia and reflecting on the experience on a user page here.

  • Look ahead to the class where you pick a topic and start thinking about what you’d like to write an article about. For example, past students contributed Richmond Newspapers, Inc. v. Virginia and Friends of the Public Garden.

Sep 13 Tue - Community

What do we mean by “community” and how do online forums qualify?

Sep 16 Fri - Persuasion

Why might people join a community, platform, or app? What is the psychology behind motivation and the dangers of its exploitation?

Bring your device.

Wikipedia task 2

  • Have you completed the first trainings and signed-up from the earlier task?
  • Introduce yourself to Prof. Reagle and a classmate on their Talk pages.
  • Add your User page and Talk page to your watchlist.
  • Complete the Evaluating Articles and Sources and the Finding Your Article training; choose a topic for which you can write or significantly expand an article with 5-10 well sourced paragraphs. A good topic has a high notability (significant coverage in reliable sources independent of the subject) and is one your are not associated with. It is better to choose a notable and well-sourced topic of which you are ignorant than vice versa; feel free to discuss ideas with me.
    • Northeastern’s library provides topics for which there is no article (red link) or a stub in need of expansion.
    • Requested articles includes potential topics—but you still must make sure there are enough reliable and independent sources.
    • Most-wanted articles lists topics linked to by other articles but for which no article exists.
    • Consider interesting scholars or books, under-appreciated locales or history, and recent events or people in the news.
    • Popular culture, products, businesses, and social media celebrities tends to be challenged as promotional—you are better off avoiding these.
  • Find at least four reliable sources that are independent of the subject: this can include books, magazines, and newspapers—but not press releases, marketing, PR news wires, blogs, and self-published material. Reliable sources, such as The New York Times, typically have their own Wikipedia article.
  • Find three Wikipedia articles most similar to your topic. This will ensure you avoid duplication and you have an exemplar to follow. Review their Talk pages to see what kind of issues are of concern. Contributors to these related pages and those of associated WikiProjects can be a source feedback.
  • Document your choice, reliable sources, and related Wikipedia articles on the course’s talk page under proposed topics.

Sep 20 Tue - Wikipedia project start

Note, we will do much of this assignment in class, so bring your device. Before class, make sure you have at least four reliable sources on your topic and experiment with how to make Wikipedia citations on your sandbox subpage. We’ll be working with guest Brooke Williams, Northeastern librarians.

No need to write a QIC.

Wikipedia task 3

  • Make sure your preferences are set such that you still have the visual and syntax editor tabs available.
  • Complete the Drafting in the sandbox training.
  • On the WP dashboard assign yourself an article, this will create a subpage of your user page on which you can start drafting.
  • Compile a bibliography of at least four reliable sources.
  • Write an outline of your article—with citations—on this page.

Sep 23 Fri - Kohn on motivation

Is it possible for extrinsic motivators to “crowd out” intrinsic motives? Kohn has concerns about the extrinsic motive of rewards. Gittip was a crowd-funding site, like Patreon, focused on supporting open source software developers by way of recurring user contributions. Yet, might this type of extrinsic reward engender resentment?

Wikipedia task 4

Consult the “Help out” section of the Community Portal do one of each:

  1. Fix spelling and grammar
  2. Fix wikilinks

Sep 27 Tue - Regulation and pro-social norms

We are now going to spend a couple of weeks on how communities regulate and govern themselves. Today, we’re looking at limiting bad behavior and the effects thereof, especially with respect to making norms salient. Have you been able to discern norms at Wikipedia? As you read, think about other spaces (online and off) that may have related norms, such as Reddit’s Change My View.

Sep 30 Fri - Ethics (interlude)

While I will not be asking you to conduct formal interviews it is still important for us to consider the ethical implications of studying online communities. Do you think Facebook and OkCupid were ethical? Should academics be held to a higher standard?

Due: Essay on user influence and motivation

Oct 04 Tue - Norm compliance and breaching

Let’s continue reading about community regulation and norms. Garfinkel is summarized well in the Wikipedia article and I provide the PDF in the zip file for use in your assignment. After today’s class, begin your own breaching experiment.

Oct 07 Fri - Collaboration and feedback

In one reading we look at Wikipedia’s collaborative culture and ask if there is something there that contributes to its success? We also consider the affect of Wikipedia on research, and a short example with respect to feedback.

Wikipedia task 5

  • Complete the Images and Media training if you plan on using media on your article.
  • Your sandbox article should now be roughly complete, with a good structure, 4-6 paragraphs of content, and references.
    • Ask me for a review on Wikipedia with a link to your sandbox.
    • Once you’ve addressed my feedback, read the “Moving your work into Wikipedia’s mainspace” training and do one of the following.
      • If this is a new article, ask me to help you move it to mainspace.
      • If this is an extension, start porting your revised and new sections over to the existing article.
      • On its Talk page, invite feedback; you can find interested Wikipedians on related WikiProjects or via major authors of this or related pages.
      • Respond to any feedback you get toward making a perfect article.

Oct 11 Tue - Moderation: Frameworks

What options are available for the moderation of online communities?

Oct 14 Fri - Moderation: U.S. law/policy

Moderation has legal impetuses and consequences. Consider the spectrum of Barlow’s laissez-faire in the 90s to the government interventions (and politics) of today. Where do you think the balance should be struck?

Bring your device for editing Wikipedia.

Oct 18 Tue - Reddit’s challenges and delights

Let’s consider Reddit’s attempts at moderating its forums, which is not easy. In this collection of readings we can see how Reddit’s character can be both delightful and awful. What could they change to make things better? Find an example of a weird subreddit and an uplifting one for class discussion.

Oct 21 Fri - Governance and banning at Wikipedia

Let’s focus on questions of governance, specifically: how are decisions made? Also, what kind of sanctions and decision making processes are available to censure users?

Oct 25 Tue - Algorithms: Reddit and Tiktok

How to algorithms shape the communities we inhabit, especially those people typically on the margins?

Oct 28 Fri - Parasocial relationships, “stans”, and “try guys”

Wong introduces the notion of “parasocial relationships” in the context of “try guy” disappointment – and it’s not just guys, see Ali Wong’s divorce. Malik and Haidar show how genuine community can develop around fan-based para-social relationships.

Wikipedia task 6

  • With your work now live in the Mainspace, begin reaching out for help from Wikipedians: look to related pages Talk pages, their edit histories, and Project-related pages.
  • Respond to any feedback you get toward making a perfect article.

Nov 01 Tue - Debrief: Social breaching

Due: Social breaching. You must give a five minute or less talk, in-person (TED-like) or recorded (like Veritasium) following the presentation recommendations. If you wish to use a projector make your deck public—to everyone, not just Northeastern—and link to your slides in the Slides Doc.

Nov 04 Fri - Newcomer gateways

In many regards, having newcomers to a community is a good problem to have. Nonetheless, it can be a problem. How do successful communities keep and integrate newcomers into their fold? I’ve also asked you to read about two gateways to new membership in an online gaming guild and a humorous take on Wikipedia socialization. Bring your device for editing Wikipedia.

Nov 08 Tue - Newcomer initiation

Why do people sometimes feel such an affinity for groups that abuse them?

Wikipedia task 7

  • Peer review two of your classmates’ articles using the criteria of a perfect article.
    • Big changes could be suggested or done (and documented) on the article talk page.
    • Be bold and directly copy-edit smaller changes in the two reviewed articles.

Nov 11 Fri - NO CLASS

Nov 15 Tue - RTFM

Newcomers are sometimes explicitly (or implicitly) expected to learn rudimentary knowledge before joining the community. But is it alienating to ask them to first “read the fucking manual”? Can you find an example of a “FAQ slap” in which someone is told the equivalent?

Nov 18 Fri - Community fission and the Reddit diaspora

Controversial communities are sometimes pushed from a platform. Our key question, then: Is this a good thing? Is the moderation fair? Ought platforms support free speech? And if you think a community is harmful, is it productive to push it out to metastasize elsewhere?

These are controversial, culture-war topics. And Fain and Astria, plus the linked to podcast, are written from the perspective of the Reddit diaspora. Independent of how you feel about the positions expressed, use these cases to consider the questions above.

Nov 22 Tue - Gratitude

Today we will consider the role of gratitude within a community.

Wikipedia task 8

  • Give at least one Wikipedian who is not associated with our class a token of Wikilove or thanks.

Nov 25 Fri - NO CLASS

Nov 29 Tue - Wikipedia in the news

Bring your device for our final Wikipedia editing session.

Dec 02 Fri - Debrief: Wikipedia

What do we think of the Wikipedia community and experience?

Wikipedia task 9


  • Add final touches to your Wikipedia article. Has anyone seen your page?
  • Write a reflective essay (see Assignments) on your Wikipedia contributions on a user page.
  • Prepare for an in-class discussion about your Wikipedia editing experience relative to our discussions on how to design for a successful community. Don’t ramble, but tell us in about 4 minutes:
    • what would you recommend Wikipedia do to:
      • welcome newcomers
      • persuade people to contribute and donate
      • increase motivation
      • regulate vandals
    • what surprised you?
    • what annoyed you?

Dec 06 Tue - Exit and infocide

Although many scholars and practitioners focus on recruiting and retaining community members, what about exit? Beyond the celebrities who quit Twitter, consider why people leave. Check out some of the user pages that use Template:Retired. Bring your device for a class activity.

Dec 09 Tue - TRACE

DUE: Evidence of TRACE completion due via email when class usually starts.

© 2014-2022 Joseph Reagle. Please reuse and share! CC icon

Elements of this course are inspired by similar courses from Aaron Shaw and Mako Hill.