Online Communities

2016SP COMM 4625 SEC01 Office hours Content
TU/FR 1:35 - 3:15 pm
West Village F 114
Joseph Reagle, Ph.D., <j.reagle>
TU appointments starting at 15:30
Comm Studies, 215 Holmes Hall
Tip: Enter at 41A Leon St.

Course objectives

In the 90s many people drew a line between the online and offline worlds and asked if online communities were “real.” Over time, scholars concluded “yes,” people share enduring identities, activities, and relations online. In the new millennium, this is not only widely accepted as a fact, but as a focus of significant business interests. Upon successful completion of this course you will be able to explain the dynamics of online communities including joining, governance, conflict, and exit. Furthermore, you will have experience with the development and challenges of online communities via hands-on interventions (including experiments with your own online networks and contributions to Wikipedia). Our orientation will be that of asking how can one design successful online communities? This could be valuable to you as a participant, as a supporter of a social cause, or as part of your employment. As much as possible, scholarly readings will be complemented by contemporary cases.

Successful completion of this course enables one to:


Active learning and the Web

“I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.” – Confucius

This is an active learning course meaning that you will be engaged with activities such as class and group discussion, participating in and designing class exercises, collaborative note-taking, and peer assessment. I expect you to make at least one good discussion contribution during a class; I might also “cold call” you to facilitate wider discussion.

I also make much use of the Web. For instance, this syllabus is a Web page that I update; I expect you to bookmark it and to follow links. (If you find a broken link, let me know!) You can easily find things on this page with control-f. You can open links in new tabs with control-click. We will also make use of Google Docs. I recommend you use something like Zim or Evernote to “make information your own.” By the way, in emails I often use markdown conventions and respond below your quoted (‘>’) text.

This is a 4 credit course, which is a 12 hour per week workload. Subtracting ~4 hours for class time, that’s 4 hours per class to be spent in preparation or on assignments.

Academic policies

In short, come to class on time and with the readings and assignments completed; be respectful and willing to collaborate. There are no provisions for missed exams or late assignments.

We sometimes use devices in class as part of an activity, but the default policy is for gadgets to be silenced and put away. (Interestingly, as noted in my tips for note-taking, handwritten notes can lead to better learning.) If you want to use a device throughout classes, email me a device proposal with your intended usage. Note, device users might also be called upon you to perform tasks such as looking things up or taking collaborative notes. I can also rescind device privileges. Deviations from classroom professionalism and respect may result in dismissal from class and demerits against your grade. See full course policies for more detail.

In general, if you have an issue, such as needing an accommodation for a religious obligation or learning disability, speak with me before it affects your performance; afterward it is too late. Do not ask for favors; instead, offer proposals that show initiative and a willingness to work.

Academic Integrity: “The promotion of independent and original scholarship ensures that students derive the most from their educational experience and their pursuit of knowledge.” Violations include cheating, fabrication, plagiarism, and participating in or encouraging dishonesty. I will and have reported violators to the Office of Student Conduct.


There are 1000 points at stake over the course of the term. This is converted to letter grades on the basis of thresholds; they are not rounded.

Because this is a upper-level course, I give greater freedom than in introduction classes where I require things like essay proposals and formal peer review. Being prepared and getting good feedback are still essential to doing well, I just don’t make you do it: you have greater freedom to do poorly. Also, because this is a capstone, I’d like for you to have work products you can be proud of. So if you have a creative idea, please let me know!

Writing requirements

Traditional written assignments (greater than 450 words) must be double-spaced, 12 point font, 1-inch margins. (One page contains approximately 250 words.) Pages must be numbered and stapled together. Citations must be in the APA style.

No APA cover page is required. In fact, so as to avoid bias, I read assignments “blind” without knowing the author until the last page. Hence, your name (and final word count absent bibliography) should only appear on the back side of the final page. That is, I should only know your name by turning the assignment over.

All assignments should be reviewed by two peers and assessed according to the writing rubric. Make use of Hacker’s Pocket Manual and my writing tips handout. On the due date, assignments are due at start of class (print copies must be submitted in class and the electronic version must be submitted to BlackBoard Turnitin). If you have permission to revise a written assignment for re-assessment, please see these revision instructions.

Grading Rubric

Communication Studies courses are expected, on average, to have a GPA of no more than a 3.3 (B+); this means those receiving an A or A- are in the minority. The course rubric notes that “A” students have all of the following attributes.

  1. show mastery in assignments. Their work demonstrates impressive understanding of readings, discussions, themes and ideas. It is fluid, clear, analytical, well-organized and grammatically polished. Reasoning and logic are well-grounded and examples precise.
  2. have virtually perfect attendance. Their commitment to the class resembles that of the teacher.
  3. are prepared for class. They always read assignments and participate fully. Their attention to detail is such that they occasionally catch the teacher in a mistake.
  4. show interest in the class. They look up or dig out what they don’t understand. They often ask interesting questions or make thoughtful comments.
  5. have retentive minds. They are able to connect past learning with the present.
  6. have a winning attitude. They have the determination, initiative and self-discipline to succeed.


Many links to my public wiki are found through-out this syllabus (remember, control-f is your friend), but I’ve gathered some of the most important ones below. As I explain in this video about tracking assignment requirements, I have high expectations and send a lot of information your way, I recommend you use a tool, like zim wiki or Evernote, so as to “make the information your own.”

Tip: temporarily place requirements and rubrics into your work (e.g., at the top of the response file template).


Most readings are linked to from this page, if not check this password protected zip file (the password is my dog’s name in lowercase). However, you must acquire the following:

I also expect you to have a copy of:

Like other skills, bibliography is something you learn to do well. Technology can make it easier. NU makes RefWorks and EndNote available to students; you can also use the freely available browser-based Zotero.

Note that for selections, I specify the chapter (ch=) or pages (pp=) to read.



Jan 12 Tue - Intro and Wikipedia

We learn each other’s names, review the course objectives, and get started with Wikipedia with the help of guest Amanda Rust, our Wikipedia Ambassador and NU librarian.

Wikipedia task 1


  1. Subscribe to the class email list (non-digest).
  2. Come to class with mnemonic linking your name with something novel about yourself. For instance, I like science fiction: “Joseph the Jedi”.


Jan 15 Fri - Persuasion

We begin with motivation, starting with requesting and enhancing motivation. What is some of the science behind motivation?

Wikipedia intro and design

Jan 19 Tue - A/B testing

We make a slight digression to consider one of the dominant means of online design (A/B testing) and in understanding the Wikipedia community. Bring your device.

Wikipedia task 2

  • Before class, make sure you’ve completed the Wikipedia Essentials and Editing Basics tutorials.
  • Make sure you’ve create a user page and that you appear on the list of students on the course page.
  • To practice editing and communicating on Wikipedia, introduce yourself to Prof. Reagle, one classmate, and any Wikipedians helping your class (such as a Wikipedia Ambassador) on their talk page.
  • Add your User page and Talk page to your wachlist. You can configure this to notify you when someone edits a page you are watching. (You can also use IFTTT for notifications.)
  • Choose a possible topic.
    • NEU’s library provides topics for which there is no article (red link) or only a stub but for which they have sources you can use.
    • You may also choose a topic related to your interests, studies, or career if you are confident in your knowledge and ability to find sources and edit without a conflict of interest. (Feel free to discuss ideas with me.)
      • Requested articles includes categories of topics others’ have identified to be in need of an article.
      • You might also consider recent events, people in the news, or new local businesses.
  • Look for Wikipedia articles related to your possible topic:
    • so as to avoid duplication;
    • for an idea of what type of content and sources you’ll have to find (e.g., who, when, major events, impact, and sources);
    • for a sense of article structure that you will want to emulate;
    • so that you’ll be able to create links to and from your article;
    • because their Talk pages might also be places where you’ll be able to ask for help, and there m ay be links to a related WikiProject;
  • Document your choice and three related articles on the course’s talk page under proposed topics.


Jan 22 Fri - Gaming motivation

What are the types of motivation and to what extent can they be “gamed”?

Jan 26 Tue - NEU Special Collections

Meet at 90 Snell Library (next to Special Collections). Note, we will do this assignment in class rather than it being due before class, so bring a device. However, you should experiment with how to make Wikipedia citations. We’ll be working with Amanda Rust and Michelle Romero. No need to write a QIC.

Wikipedia task 3

  • Compile a bibliography of at least 4-5 relevant research sources, primarily published in reputable books, journals, and newspapers.
    • Remember, there’s more to the world than that found in a Web search. You could search LexisNexis for news articles and books via Amazon and Google.
  • Write a 3-4 paragraph summary version of your article—with citations—in your Wikipedia sandbox subpage. (A sandbox is just a subpage (often a user subpage) with the {{User sandbox}} template included; this creates an easy to use button to move the page into Wikipedia’s article space when you are ready.)
  • Feel free to use the class email list to share tips or ask for help from classmates. You could also create a wiki-page or Google Doc for this.

Jan 29 Fri - Kohn on motivation

Is it possible for extrinsic motivators to “crowd out” intrinsic motives?

  • Alfie Kohn, 1999, “Cutting the interest rate: the fifth reason rewards fail” ch=4-6
    • Skim chapter 4, read chapter 5, chapter 6 might be interesting to you as a student
  • Gittip, 201406, About
  • Chad Whitacre, 2013, Resentment


Feb 02 Tue - Relational commitment

In the next few classes, we will be looking at how to encourage commitment from members towards a community. We begin with what is called “affective” and “bonds-based” commitment.

  • Kraut ch=3 pp=77-102
  • Joseph Reagle, 2015, “Introduction”, Reading the Comments: Likers, Haters, and Manipulators at the Bottom of the Web, ch=1

Wikipedia task 4

Consult the “Help out” section of the Community Portal do one of each:

  1. Fix spelling and grammar
  2. Fix wikilinks

Feb 05 Fri - Ethics (interlude)

While I will not be asking you to conduct formal interviews it is still important for us to consider the ethical implications of studying online communities. Do you think Facebook and OkCupid were ethical? Should academics be held to a higher standard?

Feb 09 Tue - Needs-based and lock-in

Today, I am asking you to read about normative and needs-based communities. When you think of exemplar communities, what kind are they? I’ve also provided a couple of short readings about how online communities “lock-in” their members.


Feb 12 Fri - Internet rules & CoC

We are now going to spend a couple of weeks on how communities regulate and govern themselves. Today, we’re looking at limiting bad behavior and the effects thereof, especially with respect to making norms salient. Also, consider the juxtaposition of the farcical “Internet rules” with actual community codes of conduct.

Due: Essay on user influence and motivation

Feb 16 Tue - Compliance and norms

Let’s continue reading about community regulation and norms. Garfinkel is summarized well in the Wikipedia article but I provide the PDF in the zip file for use in your assignment.

  • Kraut ch=4 pp=151-170 (claims 21-33)
  • Wikpedia, Breaching experiment
  • Harold Garfinkel, 1976, Studies in ethnomethodology

Begin your social breaching experiment.

Feb 19 Fri - Community and collaboration

In one reading we look at Wikipedia’s collaborative culture and ask if there is something there that contributes to its success? In the other, we look at a study of feedback at Wikipedia.

Wikipedia task 5

  • Your sandbox article should now be roughly complete, with a good structure, 4-6 paragraphs of content, and references.
  • Move your sandbox article into main space.
  • Add your article to the class’s course page via the dashboard/Students/Assign Articles.
    • at dashboard, click “Students” (between “Timeline” and “Articles” at the top)
    • click the blue button “Assign Articles” in the upper right (next to “Enroll”)
    • for each student, you can assign an article and a review
      • Assign yourself your article
      • Assign yourself yourself two reviews as students put their articles up; try to select one without reviews—you don’t need to start reviewing yet
  • Begin polishing your article.

Feb 23 Tue - Moderation

What options are available for the moderation of online communities?

Feb 26 Fri - Governance and banning

Let’s focus specifically on questions of governance, specifically: how are decisions made? Also, what kind of sanctions and decision making processes are available to censure users?


Mar 01 Tue - Newcomer gateways

In many regards, having newcomers to a community is a good problem to have. Nonetheless, it can be a problem. How do successful communities keep and integrate newcomers into their fold? I’ve also asked you to read about a particular gateway to new membership.

Mar 04 Fri - Newcomer initiation

Why do people sometimes feel such an affinity for groups that abuse them?

Wikipedia task 6

  • Peer review two of your classmates’ articles using the criteria of a perfect article.
    • Big changes could be suggested or done (and documented) on the article talk page.
    • Be bold and directly copy-edit smaller changes in the two reviewed articles.

Mar 08 Tue - NO CLASS

Mar 11 Fri - NO CLASS

Community character

Mar 15 Tue - Debrief: Social breaching

Due: Social breaching You may given an in-person (TED-like) talk or an online YouTube video (like Veritasium) and should follow the presentation recommendations. If you wish to use slides, you must do so from my Chromebook: make your deck public and link to your slides in this Slides Doc.

Mar 18 Fri - Gratitude

Today we will consider the role of gratitude within a community.

Due: Wikipedia task 7

  • Give at least one Wikipedian who is not associated with our class some Wikilove. Of course, you can also share as much Wikilove as you wish, in or out of class. (You can also thank contributors for specific edits.)

Mar 22 Tue - RTFM

Newcomers are sometimes explicitly (or implicitly) expected to learn rudimentary knowledge before joining the community. But is it alienating to ask them to first “read the fucking manual”? Can you find an example of a “FAQ slap” in which someone is told to RTFM?


Mar 25 Fri - Bootstrapping a niche and Winner-Take-All

The final chapter from Kraut et al. asks that if one is starting a new community, how best to bootstrap it?

  • Robert H. Frank, Philip J. Cook, 1995, The winner-take-all society, pp=1-26
  • Kraut ch=6 pp=231-248 (claims 1-17)

Mar 29 Tue - Bootstrapping and critical mass

Let’s consider additional bootstrapping tactics; do you think Uber will win the day?

Apr 01 Fri - FOMO

We again focus on that sense that if one doesn’t join a community soon, one might be left behind. Is this something online communities and marketers should take advantage of? Or do you think it unethical? Bring your device for a class activity.

Apr 05 Tue - Debrief: Newcomer campaign

Due: Newcomer campaign and debrief. Come to class prepared to briefly describe your campaign.

  • Don’t ramble, but tell us in about 4 minutes:
    • what was your community/platform
    • what are you proposing
    • do you really think it would work?

Case study

Apr 08 Fri - Reddit

As you read the short essays think about what makes reddit works? What is it good at and what are some of the challenges it faces as an online community?


Apr 12 Tue - Infocide

While many people focus on recruiting and governing members within a community, what about exit? Why do people leave?

We’ll also be joined Amanda Rust, our Wikipedia Ambassador. Bring your device for our final editing Q&A.

Apr 15 Fri - CLASS CANCELLED (Reagle at conference)

Apr 19 Tue - Debrief: Wikipedia

Due: Wikipedia task 8

  • Add final touches to your Wikipedia article.
  • Write a reflective essay (see assignments) on your Wikipedia contributions on a user page.
  • Prepare for an in-class discussion about your Wikipedia editing experience relative to our discussions on how to design for a successful community. Don’t ramble, but tell us in about 4 minutes:
    • what would you recommend Wikipedia do to:
      • welcome newcomers
      • persuade people to contribute and donate
      • increase motivation
      • regulate vandals
    • what surprised you?
    • what annoyed you?

© 2014-2016 Joseph Reagle. Please reuse and share! Creative Commons License