Organizational Theories II

Joseph Reagle



origins metaphor social organization
Sci Mngmt industrial revolution cog division & hierarchy
Behavior social sciences (person) teams within group
Integrated biology organism actors in environ
Critical civil liberties oppression & resistance

New Human Behavior Theory

Maslow (1943)

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow Mnemonic

PSLES: Puzzle pieces to being fully realized

Quiz bowl


  1. Get in groups.
  2. Answer (+/-1 pt): One person on team can buzz in to give the answer/letter.
  3. Explanation (+1 pt)
    1. Everyone else (except buzzer) confer (1 min)
    2. A non-buzzer must give a good explanation as to why that is the answer and the other options are not.
      1. If the group doesn’t believe the buzzed answer is correct; they may explain why it is not (if unchallenged neutralize negative point).
    3. Another group (or Professor) can challenge explanation.
    4. Best explanation gets 1 pt.

~15 Questions

Scientific Management

The Scientific Management organizational theories have historical roots in:

  1. The Industrial Revolution, Scientism, Militarism
  2. Scientism, Great Depression, Labor Unions
  3. Anthropology, Sociology, Scientism
  4. Biology, technology, human behavior

Which of the following is not associated with Max Weber?

  1. There are different types of authority
  2. Bureaucracy is defined as “red tape” or “officialdom”
  3. Organization is continuous and bounded by rules
  4. Offices are structured in a hierarchical way

According to Max Weber’s three types of legitimate authority in Enock’s text which describes charismatic authority?

  1. where acceptance arises out of the office,or position, of the person in authority as bounded by the rules and procedures of the organization.
  2. where acceptance of those in authority arose from tradition and custom.
  3. where acceptance arises from loyalty to, and confidence in, the personal qualities of the ruler.

What is one criticism made by Weber regarding charismatic leaders?

  1. They often become too powerful and corrupt
  2. They are unproductive and inefficient
  3. They tend to stay at organizations too long
  4. They lead to disorderly transitions of power

According to Shockley-Zalabak, which of the following correctly matches the thinker with his belief or idea?

  1. Weber; 14 principles of management
  2. Taylor; time and motion study
  3. Fayol; bureaucracy
  4. Weber; participative management

Communication in scientific management is

  1. Horizontal
  2. Vertical
  3. Informal
  4. Usually initiated by subordinates

Human Behavior

According to Shockley-Zalabak’s, Human Behavior Theory researchers ask about:

  1. how structure, technology, and people relate to their environments
  2. the influence of individuals in organizations, what motivates workers, and how motivation affects the organization
  3. how organizations should be designed, how workers can be trained for maximum efficiency, how the chain of command works, and how division of labor should be determined.
  4. the privilege of certain organizational members and the marginalization of others.

Elton Mayo’s research on the Chicago Hawthorne plant of Western Electric indicates that production increased due to:

  1. an increase in lighting intensity
  2. changes in physical environment
  3. workers’ awareness of being studied
  4. workers improved working conditions

Which of Likert’s “patterns of management” is the most people-oriented management style?

  1. benevolent
  2. participative
  3. exploitative
  4. consultative

Which is not a belief of Theory X?

  1. Workers view work as being as natural as play
  2. People are lazy
  3. Workers dislike work by nature
  4. Worker are not highly intelligent or capable or organizational creativity

According to Likert’s management systems, benevolent-authoritative is characterized by:

  1. Trust between management and employees, decision making made throughout organization.
  2. Management closely controlling and directing work with little reliance on workers.
  3. Management actively seeking input from employees
  4. Hierarchical management control with some trust and confidence placed in workers


TBD: bounded rationality and another question

In class we defined contingency theory as

  1. There is no best way to organize
  2. Workers are naturally hard working
  3. There is one best way to organize
  4. Attention leads to higher production

According to Margaret Wheatley, the new science helps us understand that disorder can be the source of new order. Which word describes this statement better?

  1. Autopoiesis
  2. Dissipative structures
  3. Chaos Theory
  4. Bounded Rationality

What are learning organizations?

  1. groups that gain knowledge from continuous processes of information exchange between the organization and its environment
  2. the ability to think about connections and patterns and to view systems as wholes, not individual parts of the patterns
  3. competitive environments that shape the reality of how organizations manage activity and whether they are successful
  4. a pattern of basic assumptions that has worked well enough to be considered valid and taught to new members