Wikipedia 10K Redux by Reagle from Starling archive. Bugs abound!!!

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SoCrates (470 B.C. - 399 B.C.), Greek philosopher, is famous for a great many things.  Arguably, his most important contribution to Western thought is something that has come to be known as the ''SocraticMethod''--a method of asking questions of a person in order to lead the person into contradicting himself--which laid the foundation for all later rational Western thought.  Closely associated with Socrates' use of his method is his desire to discover the ''logos,'' or true nature or essence, of a thing (or concept).  For example, in the ''Euthyphro'' Socrates asks a religious man, who believes he knows what piety is, to clarify the concept.

Socrates taught PlaTo, who in turn taught ArisTotle, and it is this triumvirate of great Greek philosophers who started the WesterN tradition of PhiloSophy and by extension ScienCe.

Since he left no writings, all that we know of Socrates comes from the writings of just a few ancient Greeks, primarily Plato in PlatosDialogues (most of which were written in SocraticDialogue form), but also XenoPhon and AristoPhanes.
To be continued...feel free to continue this yourself.