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ParamounT

Paramount was founded by WWHodkinson in 1914, as a merger of 11 film rental bureaus. Paramount was the first company that did nationwide distribution, thus gaining a huge efficiency advantage over the old regional States' Rights system. The company did 5-year exclusive contracts with AdolphZukor's FamousPlayers, JesseLasky's FeaturePlay and with BoswortH, the contracts were expanded to 25 years later (see VerticalIntegration). Paramount also introduced the block-booking system, which meant that an exhibitor who wanted to show a paticular FamousPlayers movie had to buy an entire package, containing a set of (mostly mediocre) films from all companies that worked together with Paramount. This system was very efficient for the involved production firms and in 1917, AdolphZukor bought Paramount and merged it with FamousPlayers. The new firm was called Paramount Pictures Corporation, and was the dominating force in the American market, it had most of the major stars under contract (like MaryPickford, DouglasFairbanks). AdolphZukor fired WWHodkinson, who founded FirstNational to challenge Paramount's power. FirstNational controlled a large portion of the nation's cinemas and thus Paramount decided to build it's own chain of cinemas and achieved yet greater control of the market (in 1920, it controlled 5000 cinemas, 25% of the market). In 1919, FirstNational and Paramount planned to merge, to gain full control of the market and to cut production cost, because they figured that stars couldn't demand huge sums if there was only one major company to work for. But the plan was uncovered by a provate eye hired by CharlieChaplin, MaryPickford, DouglasFairbanks and DWGriffith, who wanted to know why the major companies didn't prolong their contracts. In reaction to the plan, they decided to found their own distribution company, UnitedArtists, which effectovely ended the efforts to found a monopoly. Nevertheless, Paramount was one of the dominating companies in the SecondOligopoly until the US Supreme Court split the company in two 1949.