Wikipedia 10K Redux by Reagle from Starling archive. Bugs abound!!!

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Indo-European

It turns out that most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia are related into one superfamily, referred to as Indo-European.  The various subgroups of Indo-European include:

* [[Indo-Iranian languages]]
* [[Italic languages]] (including [[Latin language|Latin]] and its descendants, the [[Romance languages]])
* [[Germanic languages]]
* [[Celtic languages]]
* [[Baltic languages]]
* [[Slavic languages]]
* [[Illyrian languages]] ([[Albanian language|Albanian]] and extinct cousins)
* [[Anatolian languages]] (extinct, most notable was the language of the [[Hittites]])
* [[Tocharian languages]] (extinct tongues of [[Tocharians]])
* [[Greek language]]
* [[Armenian language]]

The original homeland of the speakers of [[Proto-Indo-European]] (PIE) is not known for certain, but probably lies somewhere around the black sea.  Most of the subgroups diverged and had spread out over much of Europe and the MiddleEast during the fourth and third millenia BC.  Discussion of PIE culture has been stalled by its association with the racist doctrines of [[National socialism]], but enormous amounts of work has been done on its structure and vocabulary.
   
These are all [[Inflected languages]].  Some work indicates they may belong to a hypothetical language superfamily called the [[Nostratic languages]].  For those interested in such things, the original sounds appear to be

   p   t   ky  k   kw                   Voiceless stops
   b   d   gy  g   gw                   Voiced stops
   bh  dh  ghy gh  ghw                  Voiced aspirated stops

   s   z   H1  H2  H3                   Spirants, laryngeals (quality unknown)
   r   l   y   w   m   n                Semi-vowels, nasals (all can be vocalic)
   
   a   e   i   o   u                    Short vowels
   â   ê   î   ô?  û?                   Long vowels