Wikipedia 10K Redux by Reagle from Starling archive. Bugs abound!!!

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Anarchy is a term used in two different ways, to describe two very different political views.  It is worth noting that although it is likely that adherents of either view will surely have many disagreements with the other, it is not correct to think of them as being diametric opposites.

Traditionally, the term ''anarchy'' has been applied to a movement 
dedicated to the abolition of illegitimate authority and the establishment of a social order without hierarchy. Proponents of the extent system equate its abolition with the abolition of all social order. In their time, Monarchists accused Republicans of seeking the destruction of all social order. 

Prominent anarchists of the traditional sort include EmmaGoldman, MikhailBakunin, and NoamChomsky.  We have a comprehensive discussion of TraditionalAnarchism.

More recently, the term ''anarchy'' has been applied to supporters of AnarchoCapitalism, which may be loosely defined as the idea that there should not be a single government, but rather that the traditional functions of government might be best handled by private courts and defense agencies.  

The most prominent theorist of AnarchoCapitalism is DavidFriedman, son of NobelPrize/EconomicSciences winner MiltonFriedman.  We have a comprehensive discussion of AnarchoCapitalism.