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ABERDEEN, a royal burgh, city and county of a city, 
capital of Aberdeenshire, and chief seaport in the north of 
Scotland.  It is the fourth Scottish town in population, 
industry and wealth, and stands on a bay of the North 
Sea, between the mouths of the Don and Dee, 130 1/2 m.  N. 
E. of Edinburgh by the North British railway.  Though Old 
Aberdeen, extending from the city suburbs to the southern 
banks of the Dob, has a separate charter, privileges and 
history, the distinction between it and New Aberdeen can no 
longer be said to exist; and for parliamentary, municipal 
and other purposes, the two towns now form practically one 
community.  Aberdeen's popular name of the ``Granite City,' 
is justified by the fact that the bulk of the town fs built 
of granite, but to appreciate its more poetical designation 
of the ``Silver City by the Sea,'' it should be seen after 
a heavy rainfall when its stately structures and countless 
houses gleam pure and white under the brilliant sunshine.  
The area of the city extends to 6602 acres, the burghs of 
Old Aberdeen and Woodside, and the district of Torry (for 
parliamentary purposes in the constituency of Kincardineshire) 
to the south of the Dee, having been incorporated in 1891.  
The city comprises eleven wards and eighteen ecclesiastical 
parishes, and is under the jurisdiction of a council with 
lord provost, bailies, treasurer and dean of guild.  The 
corporation owns the water (derived from the Dee at a spot 21 
m.  W.S.W. of the city) and gas supplles, electric lighting and 
tramways.  Since 1885 the city has returned two members to 
Parliament.  Aberdeen is served by the Caledonian, Great North 
of Scotland and North British railways (occupying a commodious 
joint railway station), and there is regular communication by 
sea with London and the chief ports on the eastern coast of 
Great Britain and the northern shores of the Continent.  The mean 
temperature of the city for the year is 45.8 deg.  F., for summer 
56 deg.  F., and for winter 37.3 deg.  F. The average yearly rainfall 
is 30.57 inches.  The city is one of the healthiest in Scotland. 

Streets and Buildings.--Roughly, the extended city runs 
north and south.  From the new bridge of Don to the ``auld 
brig'' of Dee there is tramway communication via King 
Street, Union Street and Holburn Road--a distance of over five 
miles.  Union Street is one of the most imposing thoroughfares 
in the British Isles.  From Castle Street it runs W. S. W. 
for nearly a mile, is 70 ft. wide, and contains the principal 
shops and most of the modern public buildings, all of granite.  
Part of the street crosses the Denburn ravine (utilized for 
the line of the Great North of Scotland railway) by a fine 
granite arch of 132 ft. span, portions of the older town 
still fringing the gorge, fifty feet below the level of Union 
Street.  Amongst the more conspicuous secular buildings in the 
street may be mentioned the Town and County Bank, the Music 
Hall, with sitting accommodation for 2000 persons, the Trinity 
Hall of the incorporated trades (originating in various years 
between 1398 and 1527, and having charitable funds for poor 
members, widows and orphans), containing some portraits 
by George Jamesone, a noteworthy set of carved oak chairs, 
dating from 1574, and the shields of the crafts with quaint 
inscriptions; the office of the Aberdeen Free Press, one of 
the most influential papers in the north of Scotland; the Palace 
Hotel; the office of the Nnrthern Assurance Company, and the 
Nutional Bank of Scotland.  In Castle Street, a continuation 
eastwards of Union Street, are situated the Municipnl and 
County Buildings, one of the most splendid granite edifices 
in Scotland, in the Franco-Scottish Gothic style, built in 
1867-1878.  They are of four stories and contain the great 
hall with an open timber ceiling and oak-panelled walls; the 
Sheriff Court House; the Town Hall, with excellent portraits 
of Prince Albert (Prince Consort), the 4th earl of Aberdeen, 
the various lord provosts and other distinguished citizens.  
In the vestibule of the entrance corridor stands a suit of 
black armour believed to have been worn by Provost Sir Robert 
Davidson, who feh in the battle of Harlaw, near Inverurie, in 
1411.  From the south-western corner a grand tower rises to 
a height of 210 ft., commanding a fine view of the city and 
surrounding country.  Adjoining the municipal buildings is 
the North of Scotland Bank, of Greek design, with a portico 
of Corinthian columns, the capitals of which are exquisitely 
carved.  On the opposite side of the street is the fine 
building of the Union Bank.  At the upper end of Castle Street 
stands the Salvation Army Citadel, an effective castellated 
mansion, the most imposing ``barracks'' possessed anywhere 
by this organization.  In front of it is the Market Cross, 
a beautiful, open-arched, hexagonal structure, 21 ft. in 
diameter and 18 ft. high.  The original was designed in 1682 
by Jnhn Montgomery, a native architect, but in 1842 it was 
removed hither from its old site and rebuilt in a better 
style.  On the entablature surmounting the Ionic columns are 
panels containing medallions of Scots sovereigns from James 
I. to James VII. From the centre rises a shaft, 12 1/2 ft. 
high, with a Corinthian capital on which is the royal,unicorn 
rampant.  On an eminence east of Castle Street are the military 
barracks.  In Market Street are the Mechanics' Institution, 
founded in 1824, with a good library; the Post and Telegraph 
offices; and the Market, where provisions of all kinds and 
general wares are sold.  The Fish Market, on the Albert Basin, 
is a busy scene in the early morning.  The Art Gallery and 
Museum at Schoolhill, built in the Italian Renaissance style 
of red and brown granite, contains an excellent Collection of 
pictures, the Macdonald Hall of portraits of contemporary 
artists by themselves being of altogether exceptional 
interest and unique of its kind in Great Britain.  The public 
llbrary, magnificently housed, contains more than 60,000 
volumes.  The theatre in Guild Street is the chief seat of 
dramatic, as the Palace Theatre in Bridge Place is of variety 
entertainment.  The new buildings of Marischal College fronting 
Broad Street, opened by King Edward VII. in 1906, form one 
of the most splendid examples of modern architecture in Great 
Britain; the architect, Alexander Marshall Mackenzie, a native 
of Aberdeen, having adapted his material, white granite, to 
the design of a noble building with the originality of genius. 

Churches.---Like most Scottish towns, Aberdeen is well 
equipped with churches, most of them of good design, but 
few of special interest.  The East and West churches of St 
Nicholas, their kirkyard separated from Union Street by an Ionic 
facade, 147 1/2 ft. long, built in 1830, form one continuous 
building, 220ft. in length, including the Drum Aisle (the 
ancient burial-place of the Irvines of Drum) and the Colllson 
Aisle, which divide them and which formed the transept of the 
12th-century church of St Nicholas.  The West Church was built in 
1775, in the Italian style, the East originally in 1834 in the 
Gothic.  In 1874 a fire destroyed the East Church and the 
old central tower with its fine peal of nine bells, one of 
which, Laurence or ``Lowrie,'' was 4 ft. in diameter at the 
mouth, 3 1/2 ft. high and very thick.  The church was rebuilt 
and a massive granite tower erected over the intervening 
aisles at the cost of the municipality, a new peal of 36 
bells, cast in Holland, being installed to commemorate the 
Victorian jubilee of 1887.  The Roman Catholic Cathedral in 
Huntly Street, a Gothic building, was erected in 1859.  The 
see of Aberdeen was first founded at Mortlach in Banffshire 
by Malcolm II. in 1004 to celebrate his victory there over 
the Danes, but in 1137 David I. transferred the bishopric 
to Old Aberdeen, and twenty years later the cathedral of 
St Machar, situated a few hundred yards from the Don, was 
begun.  Save during the episcopate of William Elphinstone 
(1484-1511), the building progressed slowly.  Gavin Dunbar, 
who followed him in 1518, was enabled to complete the 
structure by adding the two western spires and the southern 
transept.  The church suffered severely at the Reformation, 
but is still used as the parish church.  It now consists of the 
nave and side aisles.  It is chiefly built of outlayer granite, 
and, though the plainest cathedral in Scotland, its stately 
simplicity and severe symmetry lend it unique distinction.  
On the flat panelled ceiling of the nave are the heraldic 
shields of the princes, noblemen and bishops who shared in its 
erection, and the great west window contains modern painted 
glass of excellent colour and design.  The cemeteries are St 
Peter's in Old Aberdeen, Trinity near the links, Nellfield 
at the junction of Great Western and Holburn Roads, and 
Allenvale, very tastefully laid out, adjoining Duthie Park. 

Education.---Aberdeen University consists of King's College 
in Old Aberdeen, founded by Bishop Elphinstone in 1494, 
and Marischal College, in Broad Street, founded in 1593 by 
George Keith, 5th earl Marischal, which were incorporated in 
1860.  Arts and divinity are taught at King's, law, medicine 
and science at Marischal.  The number of students exceeds 800 
yearly.  The buildings of both colleges are the glories of 
Aberdeen.  King's forms a quadrangle with interior court, two 
sides of which have been rebuilt, and a library wing has been 
added.  The Crown Tower and the Chapel, the oldest parts, date from 
1500.  The former is surmounted by a structure about 40 ft. 
high, consisting of a six-sided lantern and royal crown, both 
sculptured, and resting on the intersections of two arched 
ornamental slips rising from the four corners of the top of the 
tower.  The choir of the chapel still contains the original 
oak canopied stalls, miserere seats and lofty open screens in 
the French flamboyant style, and of unique beauty of design and 
execution.  Their preservation was due to the enlightened 
energy of the principal at the time of the Reformation, who 
armed his folk to save the building from the barons of the 
Mearns after they had robbed St Machar's of its bells and 
lead.  Marischal College is a stately modern building, having 
been rebuilt in 1836-1841, and greatly extended several years 
later at a cost of L. 100,000.  The additions to the buildings 
opened by King Edward VII. in 1906 have been already mentioned.  
The beautiful Mitchell Tower is so named from the benefactor (Dr 
Charles Mitchell) who provided the splendid graduation hall.  
The opening of this tower in 1895 signalized the commemoration 
of the four hundredth anniversary of the foundation of the 
university.  The University Library comprises nearly 100,000 
books.  A Botanic Garden was presented to the university in 
1899.  Aberdeen and Glasgow Universities combine to return 
one member to Parliament.  The United Free Church Divinity 
Hall in Alford Place, in the Tudor Gothic style, dates from 
1850.  The Grammar School, founded in 1263, was removed in 
1861-1863 from its old quarters in Schoolhill to a large new 
building, in the Scots Baronial style, off Skene Street.  
Robert Gordon's College in Schoolhill was founded in 1729 
by Robert Gordon of Straloch and further endowed in 1816 by 
Alexander Simpson of Collyhill.  Originally devoted (as Gordon's 
Hospital) to the instruction and maintenance of the sons of poor 
burgesses of guild and trade in the city, it was reorganized 
in 1881 as a day and night school for secondary and technical 
education, and has since been unusually successful.  Besides 
a High School for Girls and numerous board schools, there are 
many private higher-class schools.  Under the Endowments Act 
1882 an educational trust was constituted which possesses a 
capital of L. 155,000.  At Blairs, in Kincardineshire, five 
miles S.W. of Aberdeen, is St Mary's Roman Catholic College 
for the training of young men intended for the priesthood. 

Charities.---The Royal Infimary, in Woolmanhill, established 
in 1740, rebuilt in the Grecian style in 1833-1840, and 
largely extended after 1887 as a memorial of Queen Victoria's 
jubilee; the Royal Asylum, opened in 1800; the Female Orphan 
Asylum, in Albyn Place, founded in 1840; the Blind Asylum, 
in Huntly Street, established in 1843; the Royal Hospital 
for Sick Children; the Maternity Hospital, founded in 1823; 
the City Hospital for Infectious Diseases; the Deaf and Dumb 
Institution; Mitchell's Hospital in Old Aberdeen; the East 
and West Poorhouses, with lunatic wards; and hospitals devoted 
to specialized diseases, are amongst the most notable of 
the charitable institutions.  There are, besides, industrial 
schools for boys and girls and for Roman Catholic children, a 
Female School of Industry, the Seabank Rescue Home, Nazareth 
House and Orphanage, St Martha's Home for Girls, St Margaret's 
Convalescent Home and Sisterhood, House of Bethany, the 
Convent of the Sacred Heart and the Educational Trust School. 

Parks and Open Spaces.---Duthie Park, of 50 acres, the gift 
of Miss Elizabeth Crombie Duthie of Ruthrieston, occupies an 
excellent site on the north bank of the Dee. Victoria Park 
(13 acres) and its extension Westburn Park (13 acres) are 
situated in the north-western area; farther north lies Stewart 
Park (11 acres), called after Sir D. Stewart, lord provost in 
1893.  The capacious links bordering the sea between the 
mouths of the two rivers are largely resorted to for open-air 
recreation; there is here a rifle range where a ``wapinschaw,'' 
or shooting tournament, is held annually.  Part is laid out 
as an 18-hole golf course; a section is reserved for cricket 
and football; a portion has been railed off for a race-course, 
and a bathing-station has been erected.  Union Terrace 
Gardens are a popular rendezvous in the heart of the city. 

Statues.---In Union Terrace Gardens stands a colossal statue 
in bronze of Sir William Wallace, by W. G. Stevenson, R.S.A. 
(1888).  In the same gardens are a bronze statue of Burns 
and Baron Marochetti's seated figure of Prince Albert.  In 
front of Gordon's College is the bronze statue, by T. S. 
Burnett, A.R.S.A., of General Gordon (1888).  At the east 
end of Union Street is the bronze statue of Queen Victoria, 
erected in 1893 by the royal tradesmen of the city.  Near the 
Cross stands the granite statue of the 5th duke of Gordon (d. 
1836).  Here may also be mentioned the obelisk of Peterhead 
granite, 70 ft. high, erected in the square of Marischal 
College to the memory of Sir James M`Grigor (1778-1851), the 
military surgeon and director-general of the Army Medical 
Department, who was thrice elected lord rector of the College. 

Bridges.--The Dee is crossed by four bridges,--the old 
bridge, the Wellington suspension bridge, the railway bridge, 
and Victoria Bridge, opposite Market Street.  The first, till 
1832 the only access to the city from the south, consists of 
seven semicircular ribbed arches, is about 30 ft. high, and 
was built early in the 16th century by Bishops Elphinstone and 
Dunbar.  It was nearly all rebuilt in 1718--1723, and in 
1842 was widened from 14 1/2 to 26 ft.  The bridge of Don has 
five granite arches, each 75 ft. in span, and was built in 
1827--1832.  A little to the west is the Auld Brig o' 
Balgownie, a picturesque single arch spanning the deep 
black stream, said to have been built by King Robert I., 
and celebrated by Byron in the tenth canto of Don Juan. 

Harbour.--A defective harbour, with a shallow sand and gravel 
bar at its entrance. long retarded the trade of Aberdeen, but 
under various acts since 1773 it was greatly deepened.  The 
north pier, built partly by Smeaton in 1775-1781, and partly 
by Telford in 1810-1815, extends nearly 3000 ft. into the North 
Sea. It increases the depth of water on the bar from a few 
feet to 22 or 24 ft. at spring tides and to 17 or 18 ft. at 
neap.  A wet dock, of 29 acres, and with 6000 ft. of quay, 
was completed in 1848 and called Victoria Dock in honour 
of the queen's visit to the city in that year.  Adjoining 
it is the Upper Dock.  By the Harbour Act of 1868, the Dee 
near the harbour was diverted from the south at a cost of 
L. 80,000, and 90 acres of new ground (in addition to 25 acres 
formerly made up) were provided on the north side of the 
river for the Albert Basin (with a graving dock), quays and 
warehouses.  A breakwater of concrete, 1050 ft. long, was 
constructed on the south side of the stream as a protection 
against south-easterly gales.  On Girdleness, the southern 
point of the bay, a lighthouse was built in 1833.  Near the 
harbour mouth are three batteries mounting nineteen guns. 

Industry.---Owing to the variety and importance of its chief 
industries Aberdeen is one of the most prosperous cities in 
Scotland.  Very durable grey granite has been quarried near 
Aberdeen for more than 300 years, and blocked and dressed 
paving ``setts,'' kerb and building stones, and monumental 
and other ornamental work of granite have long been exported 
from the district to all parts of the world.  This, though 
once the predominant industry, has been surpassed by the 
deep-sea fisheries, which derived a great impetus from 
beam-trawling, introduced in 1882, and steam line fishing 
in 1889, and threaten to rival if not to eclipse those of 
Grimsby.  Fish trains are despatched to London daily.  Most 
of the leading industries date from the 18th century, amongst 
them woollens (1703), linen (1749) and cotton (1779).  These 
give employment to several thousands of operatives.  The 
paper-making industry is one of the most famous and oldest in 
the city, paper having been first made in Aberdeen in 1694.  
Flax-spinning and jute and combmaking factories are also very 
flourishing, and there are successful foundries and engineering 
works.  There are large distilleries and breweries, and 
chemical works employing many hands.  In the days of wooden 
ships ship-building was a flourishing industry, the town being 
noted for its fast clippers, many of which established records 
in the ``tea races.'' The introduction of trawllng revived 
this to some extent, and despite the distance of the city 
from the iron fields there is a fair yearly output of iron 
vessels.  Of later origin are the jam, pickle and potted 
meat factories, hundreds of acres having been laid down in 
strawberries and other fruits within a few miles of the city. 

History.--Aberdeen was an important place as far back as the 
12th century.  William the Lion had a residence in the city, to 
which he gave a charter in 1179 confirming the corporate rights 
granted by David I. The city received other royal charters 
later.  It was burned by the English king, Edward III., in 
1336, but it was soon rebuilt and extended, and called New 
Aberdeen.  The burgh records are the oldest in Scotland.  
They begin in 1398 and with one brief break are complete to 
the present day.  For many centuries the city was subject to 
attacks by the neighbouring barons, and was strongly fortified, 
but the gates were all removed by 1770.  In 1497 a blockhouse 
was built at the harbour mouth as a protection against the 
English.  During the struggles between the Royalists and 
Covenanters the city was impartially plundered by both 
sides.  In 1715 the Earl Marischal proclaimed the Old 
Pretender at Aberdeen, and in 1745 the duke of Cumberland 
resided for a short time in the city before attacking 
the Young Pretender.  The motto on the city arms is ``Bon 
Accord,'' which formed the watchword of the Aberdonians 
while aiding Robert Bruce in his battles with the English. 

Population.---In 1396 the population was about 3000.  By 1801 it had 
become 26,992; in 1841 it was 63,262; (1891) 121,623; (1901) 153,503. 

AUTHORITIES.--The charters of the burgh; extracts from 
the council register down to 1625, and selections from the 
letters. guildry and treasurer's accounts, forming 3 vols. 
of the Spalding Club; Cosmo Innes, Registrum Episcopatus 
Aberdonensis, Spalding Club; Walter Thore, The History 
of Aberdeen (1811); Robert Wilson, Historical Account and 
Delineation of Aberdeen (1822); William Kennedy, The Annals 
of Aberdeen (1818); Orem, Descripjion of the Chanonry, 
Cathedral and King's College of Old Aberdeen, 1724-1725 
(1830); Sir Andrew Leith Hay of Rannes, The Castellated 
Architecture of Aberdeen; Giles, Specimens of old 
Castellated Houses of Aberdeen (1838); James Bryce, Lives 
of Eminent Men of Aberdeen (1841); J. Gordon, Description 
of Both Towns of Aberdeen (Spalding Club, 1842); Joseph 
Robertson, The Book of Bon-Accord (Aberdeen, 1839); W. 
Robbie, Aberdeen: its Traditions and History (Aberdeen, 
1893); C. G. Burr and A. M. Munro, Old Landmarks of Aberdeen 
(Aberdeen, 1886); A. M. Munro, Memorials of the Aldermen, 
Provosts and Lord Provosts of Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1897); 
P. J. Anderson, Charters, &c., illustrating the History 
of Records of Marischal College (New Spalding 1890); 
Selections from the Records of Marischal College (New 
Spalding Club, 1889, 1898..1899); J. Cooper, Chartulary of 
the Church of St Nicholas (New Spalding Club, 1888, 1892); 
G. Cadenhead, Sketch of the Territorial History of the 
Burgh of Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1876); W. Cadenhead, Guide to 
the City of Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1897); A. Smith, History 
and Antiquities of New and Old Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1882).

Source:  An unnamed encyclopedia from a project that puts out-of-copyright texts into the public domain.  This is from a *very* old source, and reflects the thinking of the turn of the last century.  -- BryceHarrington