Scientific management

Historical origins


Compelling or not?

Fordism and Taylorism


14 principles of management including:

Fordism and Taylorism

Bureaucracy (Weber)

“Nicer” attributes?

egs of this today?


Human behavior

Historical origins


Compelling or not?

Mary Parker Follett

Hawthorne study


employees are work hating and responsibility shirking
employees are autonomous, responsible, self-directed, and innovative participants

Which do you think is true?


Individuals are members of overlapping groups in an organization (linking pins).

Likert types

  1. exploitative/authoritative (theory X)
  2. benevolent/authoritative (some trust/care for employees)
  3. consultative (management seeks input)
  4. participative (distributed information flow and decisions)

Which is NEU?



Historical origins


Compelling or not?

Contingency theory

  1. There is no best way to organize.
  2. All ways of organizing are not equally effective.

The system metaphor

  1. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
  2. The organization is a set of relationships that exist among ________________ people/groups.
  3. Feedback loops of information/communication exist in relationships.
  4. Organizations work within environments (which must be _________).
  5. Goals are negotiated and varied.

New systems

Learning organizations

  1. systems thinking: holism and interdependence
  2. personal mastery: members share a commitment to learning and self-reflection.
  3. flexible mental models: emerges from self-reflection.
  4. shared vision: hierarchical control is replaced by “concertive control”; members act in concert because they share a vision
  5. team learning: dialogue is used so that the team is led to intelligent decisions.


Theory Z (Ouchi)

___________________: short-term employment, individualism, rapid promotion, formal control, specialized career paths, segmented concerns

___________________: lifetime employment, consensual decision-making, collective responsibility, slow advancement, informal control, generalized careers, holistic concerns

__________: advocating success of Japanese style (1980s) to America

Excellence (Peters)

Case studies provide themes such as:

Culture (Deal & Kennedy)

Org Culture (Schein)

Sensemaking (Weick)

  1. ___________: organizational members create their environments through their actions and patterns of attention.
  2. ___________ drawing focus to those things considered important.
  3. ___________ facilitates remembering developed interpretations for future use.


Postmodern, critical, feminist


Problems to address



origins metaphor social organization
Sci Mngmt industrial revolution cog division & hierarchy
Behavior social sciences (person) teams within group
Integrated biology organism actors in environ
Critical civil liberties oppression & resistance