Review

Match: exchanges?

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  1. direct-negotiated a. individuals engage in indirect reciprocity within a
    defined community

  2. reciprocated b. bargaining and prior agreements on trades or purchases

  3. generalized c. gifts or favors that are sometimes repaid, but lacking any
    terms or agreements

  4. network-generalized d. indirect reciprocity in the form of either collective goods
    (where individuals contribute to an outcome that benefits many) or chains of indirect gifts where the providers rarely receive benefits from the same recipients (e.g., stranded motorists helping one another on the highway)

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Designing for gratitude??

Why “winner-take-all”?

QIC go around

How?

What social attributes lead to WTA markets?

 

  1. payoffs are determined by relative rank (zero-sum) rather than absolute performance
    • common in status or positional goods
  2. disproportionate rewards concentrated in the hands of a few top performers
    • their rewards are disproportionately higher than the relative difference
    • often arising from mass markets and
    • “deep-pocket” markets (a few price-insensitive will pay anything to have the best)
  3. overcrowding (overconfidence; thrill-seeking; status-seeking; or intrinsic joy)
  4. network effects (something is more valuable the more people use it) (FrankCook1995wta, “The Winner-Take-All Society”, p. 24)
    • often leading to lock-in

Effects?

 

Where else do we see winner-take-all?

Relevance to online communities?

Conclusion

Wrap up