Toxic frame


The Ds

Media differences

Clark and Brennan (1991) “grounded”:



Escalation effects

Lock in

Confirmation bias
Fundamental attribution error
My success is because of my character (disposition), my losses because of bad fortune (situation); your success is due to luck, and your failures to your character.

Email’s impact



1. Media today

  1. Think about what’s changed in the past ten years (3 minutes)
    • always connected (return of synchronicity?)
    • status updates
    • even shorter messages (K-bombs)
    • photos
    • …?
  2. Share in group (5 minutes)
  3. Share with class.

2. Conflict model

  1. In a group create a model of
    1. today’s media characteristics
    2. process effects (including Suler)
      • Dissociative anonymity (you don’t know me)
      • Invisibility (you can’t see me)
      • Asynchronicity (see you later)
      • Dissociative imagination (just a game)
      • Solipsistic introjection (all in my head)
      • Minimizing authority (we’re equals)
    3. implication for conflict (good or bad)
  2. Draw on board and be prepared to discuss


Wrap up