Most of the sources used in this book are Web pages easily accessible to the reader. Because I cite many Wikimedia related pages, I elide some information from their preferred format for brevity: I use “Wikipedia” as the author and publisher, rather than “Wikipedia contributors” and “Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia” respectively. Given the large amount of grammatical and syntactical deviations online, and that some sources are not native English speakers, I mostly present quoted text verbatim, with minimal corrections or editorial caveats such as “[sic].” In the printed book I do not provide URLs for printed or easily locatable sources. For online sources, where available, the versioned URL (i.e., a “stable” or “permanent” link) is used. I sometimes reference different versions of the same wiki page or older versions so as to provide a historical source, for comparison, or because I noted text that might have been subsequently edited — wikis do change — but I expect that its spirit remains the same.

However, I recommend consulting the online bibliography where I include hypertextual references whenever possible, including for printed sources now online. This is common for recent works, sometimes as preprints or author’s copies, and for older works in the public domain; I use the publication date of the version I used. For older works, if necessary, I often mention the original publication date. Page numbers might refer to the original pagination or to an online printout; I hope it will be clear to the reader which is the case.


Chapter  1

1AndyL, “Neo-Nazis Attempt to Stack Wikivote on Jewish,” wikien-l, February 6, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=BE2BEA7C.4E78%andyl2004@sympatico.ca (accessed February 6, 2005).

2AndyL, “A Neo-Nazi Wikipedia,” wikien-l, August 19, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=20050819221529.ZQFS2134.tomts48-srv.bellnexxia.net@[] (visited on August 23, 2005).

3Mike Godwin, “Meme, Counter-Meme,” Wired 2, number 10 (October 1994), http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.10/godwin.if_pr.html (visited on August 24, 2006).

4Wikipedia, “User:Raul654/Raul’s Laws,” Wikipedia, July 10, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=301373968 (visited on July 20, 2009).

5Jimmy Wales, “Re: A Neo-Nazi Wikipedia,” wikien-l, August 23, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=430B6975.9040906@wikia.com (visited on August 23, 2005).

6Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Etiquette,” Wikipedia, October 23, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=247072399 (visited on November 3, 2008); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Assume Good Faith,” Wikipedia, November 1, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=248943513 (visited on November 3, 2008); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Please Do Not Bite the Newcomers,” Wikipedia, October 16, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=245559838 (visited on November 3, 2008).

7Wikimedia Foundation, “Vision,” Wikimedia, September 1, 2007, http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Vision (visited on June 5, 2008).

8H.G. Wells, “The Idea of a World Encyclopedia,” Nature 138 (November 28, 1936): 920-921.

9Liane Gouthro, “Building the World’s Biggest Encyclopedia,” PC World (March 10, 2000), http://www.pcworld.com/article/15676/building_the_worlds_biggest_encyclopedia.html (visited on October 25, 2005).

10Jimmy Wales, “Historical Draft on Digital Encyclopedias,” email message to author, June 1, 2006, doi:43BEDB86.2070300@wikia.com.

11Ward Cunningham, “Correspondence on the Etymology of Wiki,” November 2003, http://c2.com/doc/etymology.html (visited on October 4, 2008).

12Wikipedia, “Help:Category,” Wikipedia, December 1, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=255169078 (visited on December 6, 2008); Wikipedia, “Category:1122 Births,” Wikipedia, October 22, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=247041224 (visited on December 6, 2008).

13Wikipedia, “Help:Template,” Wikipedia, October 25, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=247625503 (visited on December 5, 2008); Wikimedia, “Help:A Quick Guide to Templates,” Wikimedia, June 29, 2008, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=1063186 (visited on December 5, 2008).

14Wikipedia, “Template:Pp-Vandalism,” Wikipedia, September 5, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=236387424 (visited on December 6, 2008); Wikipedia, “Category:Protected against Vandalism,” Wikipedia, November 2, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=249177947 (visited on December 6, 2008).

15Despite its original simplicity, the technical and cultural complexity of Wikipedia has increased with its popularity; newcomers can now acclimate themselves with two popular-press books: John Broughton, Wikipedia: the Missing Manual (Sebastopol, CA: Pogue Press, January 25, 2008), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:Wikipedia:_The_Missing_Manual (visited on June 5, 2008); Charles Matthews, Ben Yates, and Phoebe Ayers, How Wikipedia Works (San Francisco: No Starch Press, September 2008), http://howwikipediaworks.com/ (accessed October 5, 2008).

16Wikipedia, “History of Wikipedia,” Wikipedia, January 8, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=262685944 (visited on January 8, 2009).

17Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:About,” Wikipedia, August 12, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=307641830 (visited on August 17, 2009).

18Larry Sanger, “Translation,” nupedia-l, March 20, 2000, http://web.archive.org/web/20030516085026/www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-March/000064.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

19Alexander Halavais and Derek Lackaff, “An Analysis of Topical Coverage of Wikipedia”, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13 (2008): 429–440, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2008.00403.x/full (visited on February 22, 2008); Aniket Kittur, Ed H. Chi, and Bongwon Suh, “What’s in Wikipedia? Mapping Topics and Conflict Using Socially Annotated Category Structure,” in CHI ’09: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (New York: ACM, April 8, 2009), 1509–1512, http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1518701.1518930 (visited on April 22, 2009); Anselm Spoerri, “What Is Popular on Wikipedia and Why?,” First Monday 12, number 4 (April 2007), http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1765/1645 (visited on April 26, 2007).

20Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:100,000 Feature-Quality Articles,” Wikipedia, March 13, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=276882634 (visited on May 21, 2009); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Version 1.0 Editorial Team/Assessment,” Wikipedia, May 14, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=289898436 (visited on May 21, 2009).

21Jim Giles, “Internet Encyclopaedias Go Head to Head,” Nature (December 14, 2005), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v438/n7070/full/438900a.html (accessed December 15, 2005).

22George Bragues, “Wiki-Philosophizing in a Marketplace of Ideas: Evaluating Wikipedia’s Entries on Seven Great Minds,” Social Science Research Network, April 2007, http://ssrn.com/abstract=978177 (visited on March 3, 2009), 14, 46.

23Wikipedia, “Gowanus, Brooklyn,” Wikipedia, May 3, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=209839170 (visited on June 3, 2008).

24Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Editing Frequency,” Wikipedia, November 30, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=254994395 (visited on December 1, 2008).

25Aniket Kittur et al., “He Says, She Says: Conflict and Coordination in Wikipedia”, in CHI 2007 Proceedings: Online Representation of Self (ACM, April 28, 2007), http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~echi/papers/2007-CHI/2007-Wikipedia-coordination-PARC-CHI2007.pdf (visited on November 14, 2007).

26Jimmy Wales, “Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds,” wikipedia-l, May 4, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=4278DF44.1030905@wikia.com (visited on May 4, 2005). For discussion of what constitutes a contribution, see Aaron Swartz, “Who Writes Wikipedia?”, Aaron Swartz’s Raw Thought, September 4, 2006, http://www.aaronsw.com/weblog/whowriteswikipedia (visited on September 4, 2006); Aniket Kittur et al., “Power of the Few Vs. Wisdom of the Crowd: Wikipedia and the Rise of the Bourgeoisie,” in 25th Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2007) (New York, NY: ACM, April 28, 2007), http://www.parc.com/research/publications/details.php?id=5904 (visited on May 17, 2007); Reid Priedhorsky et al., “Creating, Destroying, and Restoring Value in Wikipedia,” in Proceedings of GROUP 2007 (New York, NY: ACM, November 2007), 259–268, http://www.cs.umn.edu/~reid/papers/group282-priedhorsky.pdf (visited on October 10, 2007); Felipe Ortega and Jesus Gonzalez-Barahona, “On the Inequality of Contributions to Wikipedia”, in Proceedings of the 41st Hawaiian International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2008) (January 2008), http://libresoft.es/oldsite/downloads/Ineq_Wikipedia.pdf (visited on December 13, 2007). For changes in contribution patterns, see Philip Ball, “The More, the Wikier: the Secret to the Quality of Wikipedia Entries Is Lots of Edits by Lots of People,” Nature News (February 27, 2007), http://www.nature.com/news/2007/070226/full/news070226-6.html (visited on March 1, 2007).

27Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:List of Administrators,” Wikipedia, August 11, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=307325114 (visited on August 11, 2009).

28Walter, “The English Language Edition of Wikizine,” May 21, 2009, http://en.wikizine.org/ (visited on May 21, 2009).

29Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:WikiProject,” Wikipedia, May 6, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=288185213 (visited on May 21, 2009); ClockworkSoul, “Igor’s All Projects List,” Wiki-Igor, August 3, 2009, http://wiki-igor.net/all-projects.jsp (visited on August 3, 2009).

30Ruediger Glott, Philipp Schmidt, and Rishab Ghosh, “Wikipedia Survey – First Results”, April 9, 2009, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/a/a7/Wikipedia_General_Survey-Overview_0.3.9.pdf (visited on April 24, 2009).

31For Wikizine, Signpost, and "Village Pump" see Walter, “The English Language Edition of Wikizine”; Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost,” Wikipedia Signpost, May 7, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=288444646 (visited on May 21, 2009); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Village Pump,” Wikipedia, April 14, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=283697120 (visited on July 28, 2009); for blog aggregators, see Wikimedia Foundation, “Planet Wikimedia,” November 8, 2007, http://en.planet.wikimedia.org/ (visited on November 8, 2007); Millosh, “Aggregated Aggregators,” millosh’s blog, October 1, 2007, http://millosh.wordpress.com/2007/10/01/aggregated-aggregators/ (visited on November 8, 2007); Open, “Open Wiki Blog Planet,” November 8, 2007, http://open.wikiblogplanet.com/ (visited on November 8, 2007); for podcasts, see Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:WikipediaWeekly”, Wikipedia, May 30, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=216003219 (visited on June 4, 2008); Wikimedia, “Wikivoices,” Wikimedia, November 2008, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=1290278 (visited on December 8, 2008).

32Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Project Namespace,” Wikipedia, November 30, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=174790757 (visited on December 19, 2007); Wikimedia, “Meta,” Wikimedia, October 8, 2008, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=1221501 (visited on October 31, 2008).

33Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Barnstars,” Wikipedia, August 11, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=307406807 (visited on August 20, 2009).

34Wikipedia, “User:Raul654/Raul’s Laws (oldid=301373968)”.

35Wikipedia, “User:Malleus Fatuorum/WikiSpeak,” Wikipedia, July 10, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=224745874 (visited on July 10, 2008).

36Harold Garfinkel, Studies in Ethnomethodology (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1967), 1.

37Alain Coulon, Ethnomethodology, volume 36, Qualitative Research Methods (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995), 29.

38Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Neutral Point of View,” Wikipedia, November 3, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=249390830 (visited on November 3, 2008).

39Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Attribution,” Wikipedia, March 1, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=111837371 (visited on March 1, 2007). Even before Wikipedia, Denis Diderot (1713 - 1784), editor of the Encyclopédie, wrote the biases of “national prejudice” could be countered by “giving cross-references to articles where solid principles serve as the foundation for diametrically opposed truths” and that “If these cross-references, which now confirm and now refute, are carried out artistically according to a plan carefully conceived in advance, they will give the Encyclopedia what every good dictionary ought to have — the power to change men’s common way of thinking.” Denis Diderot, “The Encyclopedia,” in Rameau’s Nephew, and Other Works, ed. Jacques Barzun and Ralph Henry Bowen (1755; Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 2001), 295 (visited on April 25, 2008)

40Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:No Original Research,” Wikipedia, April 3, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=46780169 (visited on April 6, 2006).

41Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Verifiability,” Wikipedia, November 14, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=251829388 (visited on November 14, 2008).

42GeorgeLouis, “Wikipedia Talk:Neutral Point of View,” Wikipedia, August 16, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=69979085 (visited on November 14, 2007).

43Jimmy Wales, “Wikipedia Talk:Neutral Point of View,” Wikipedia, August 15, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=69887768 (visited on November 14, 2007).

44Yvonna S. Lincoln and Egon G. Guba, Naturalistic Inquiry (London: SAGE publications, 1985), 39-42,187-8,209; Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1967), 27, 45, 76.

45Primary sources are managed in a mind mapping application (Freemind). (I present such sources mostly verbatim, with minimal corrections or editorial caveats such as “[sic],” and use names as provided, including idiosyncratic spellings.) These are roughly organized into sixty top level categories; those topics on which I spent significant time include subdivisions. So, for example, the “good faith” category includes the subcategories of: compassion, humor, patience, etc. Capturing, excerpting, annotating, and categorizing, these sources was facilitated by bibliographic tools, as described in Joseph Reagle, “Thunderdell and BusySponge,” January 2009, http://reagle.org/joseph/2009/01/thunderdell.html (visited on May 28, 2009).

46John Van Maanen, Tales of the Field: on Writing Ethnography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 1, 13.

47Henry Jenkins, Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture (New York: Routledge, 1992), 7, http://books.google.com/books?id=71U9-cOx_ZwC (visited on May 2, 2005).

48W. Boyd Rayward, “Visions of Xanadu: Paul Otlet (1868-1944) and Hypertext”, Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45 (1994): 235–250, http://people.lis.uiuc.edu/~wrayward/otlet/xanadu.htm (visited on February 21, 2006).

49Wells, “The Idea of a World Encyclopedia”, 921.

50Harvey Einbinder, The Myth of the Britannica (New York: Grove Press, 1964); Herbert Charles Morton, The Story of Webster’s Third: Philip Gove’s Controversial Dictionary and Its Critics (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994), http://books.google.com/books?id=1dKJrIRXhFgC (visited on January 10, 2005).

Chapter  2

1Jimmy Wales, “Hi...,” nupedia-l, March 11, 2000, http://web.archive.org/web/20010506015648/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-March/000009.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

2The full name is Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire Raisonné des Sciences, des Arts et des Métiers (Encyclopedia: Or, a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts). Richard N. Schwab, “Introduction,” in Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot, ed. Richard N. Schwab and Walter E. Rex (Indianapolis: ITT Bobbs-Merrill, 1963), xii

3Diderot, “The Encyclopedia”, 283, 277.

4Richard R Yeo, Encyclopedic Visions: Scientific Dictionaries and Enlightenment Culture (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 57, 244. The recurrence of the idea of the social need for information “across generations” is also a theme of W. Boyd Rayward, “The Origins of Information Science and the International Institute of Bibliography/International Federation of Information and Documentation (FID),” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 48 (April 1997): 290, http://people.lis.uiuc.edu/~wrayward/OriginsofInfoScience.pdf (visited on September 29, 2006).

5Jimbo Wales, “Founder Letter Sept 2004,” Wikimedia Foundation, September 2004, http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Founder_letter/Founder_letter_Sept_2004 (visited on October 8, 2008).

6Marita Sturken and Douglas Thomas, “Introduction: Technological Visions and the Rhetoric of the New,” in Technological Visions: The Hopes and Fears That Shape New Technologies, ed. Marita Sturken, Douglas Thomas, and Sandra Ball (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004), 1–18, http://www.temple.edu/tempress/chapters_1400/1686_ch1.pdf (visited on November 7, 2008).

7Tom Standage, The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the 19th Century’s Online Pioneers (New York: Berkley Trade, October 15, 1999), 163.

8H.G. Wells, “World Brain: The Idea of a Permanent World Encyclopaedia,” in Encyclopédie Française (Paris: Société des Gestion de l’Encyclopédie Française, August 1937), https://sherlock.ischool.berkeley.edu/wells/world_brain.html (accessed November 19, 2008).

9Joseph J. Corn, The Winged Gospel : America’s Romance with Aviation, 1900-1950 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), 129, http://books.google.com/books? (visited on February 22, 2008).

10For an example of a contemporary reference to Alexandria, see Kevin Kelly, “Scan This Book! What Will Happen to Books? Reader, Take Heart! Publisher, Be Very, Very Afraid. Internet Search Engines Will Set Them Free. A Manifesto,” The New York Times Magazine (May 14, 2006), http://www.kk.org/writings/scan_this_book.php (visited on August 29, 2007); also, see Wikimedia, “Library of Alexandria to Host Wikipedia’s Annual Conference in 2008,” Wikimedia Foundation, November 11, 2007, http://wikimediafoundation.org/?oldid=23186 (visited on June 12, 2008).

11Vannevar Bush, “As We May Think,” Atlantic Monthly (July 1945): §6, §8, http://www.ps.uni-sb.de/~duchier/pub/vbush/vbush.shtml (visited on October 19, 2005).

12Wayne A. Wiegand, A Biography of Melvil Dewey: Irrepressible Reformer (Chicago: American Library Association, 1996); Thomas Hapke, “Wilhelm Ostwald, the ‘Brücke’ (Bridge), and Connections to Other Bibliographic Activities at the Beginning of the 20th Century,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems, ed. M. E. Bowden, T. B. Hahn, and R. V. Williams (Information Today, Inc. for the American Society for Information Science / the Chemical Heritage Foundation, 1999), 139–147, http://chemheritage.org/explore/ASIS_documents/ASIS98_Hapke.pdf (visited on February 12, 2009); Michael K. Buckland, Emanuel Goldberg and His Knowledge Machine : Information, Invention, and Political Forces (Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2006), http://books.google.com/books?id=QCddw5cVjVgC (visited on February 27, 2009); Ronald E. Day, “Suzanne Briet: An Appreciation,” Bulletin (January 2007), http://www.asis.org/Bulletin/Dec-06/day.html (visited on February 12, 2009).

13Legbagede, “A Limited Company of Useful Knowledge: Paul Otlet, the International Institute of Bibliography and the Limits of Documentalism,” everything2, May 18, 2001, http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1053046 (accessed September 29, 2006), 1.

14Paul Otlet, *Diaries*, quoted in W. Boyd Rayward, The Universe of Information. The Work of Paul Otlet for Documentation and International Organisation, 520 (Moscow: International Federation of Documentation (FID), 1975), 18, https://archive.ugent.be/handle/1854/3989 (visited on October 19, 2006).

15Paul Otlet, “Transformations in the Bibliographical Apparatus of the Sciences,” in International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge: Selected Essays of Paul Otlet, ed. W. Boyd Rayward (1918; Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1990), 148.

16Robert B. Goldschmidt and Paul Otlet, “On a New Form of the Book: the Microphotographic Book,” in International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge: Selected Essays of Paul Otlet, ed. W. Boyd Rayward (1906; Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1990), 93, 89.

17Henri La Fontaine and Paul Otlet, “Creation of a Universal Bibliographic Repertory: a Preliminary Note,” in International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge: Selected Essays of Paul Otlet, ed. W. Boyd Rayward (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1990); Otlet, “Transformations in the Bibliographical Apparatus of the Sciences”, 150.

18Rayward, “The Origins of Information Science”, 290; W. Boyd Rayward, “The Case of Paul Otlet, Pioneer of Information Science, Internationalist, Visionary: Reflections on Biography”, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 23 (September 1991): 4, http://people.lis.uiuc.edu/~wrayward/otlet/PAUL_OTLET_REFLECTIONS_ON_BIOG.HTM (visited on September 20, 2006).

19“Inventions a faire” is a phrase used to describe potential technological innovations by Paul Otlet, Traité De Documentation. Le Livre Sur Le Livre: Théorie Et Pratique, reprint (1934; Liège: Centre de Lecture publique de la Communauté française, 1989), 389-391, http://hdl.handle.net/1854/5612 (visited on October 19, 2006). It is further discussed as “inventions to be discovered” by Rayward, “The Origins of Information Science”, 18.

20While Otlet’s occasional use of superlatives and the many interrelated projects, which underwent various merges and name changes, can make it difficult, if not foolish, to speak of any single project or institution, I will limit myself to speaking of the IIB.

21Ibidem, 7.

22Rayward, “Visions of Xanadu”, 7, 14; Rayward, “The Origins of Information Science”, 293.

23I.C. McIlwaine, Notes & Queries (The Hague: UDC Consortium, February 4, 2006), http://www.udcc.org/notes.htm (visited on October 19, 2006).

24Rayward, “The Origins of Information Science”, 294.

25David Weinberger, Everything Is Miscellaneous: the Power of the New Digital Disorder (New York: Times Books, 2007), 92; also see Alex Wright, Glut: Mastering Information through the Ages (Washington, DC: John Henry Press, 2008), http://books.google.com/books?id=nHWxPtId3RUC (visited on January 6, 2009).

26Otlet’s "monographic principle" is similar to Ostwald’s "principle of the independent use of the individual piece"; for discussion of the possible origins and relations of these notions, see Hapke, “Wilhelm Ostwald, the ‘Brücke’ (Bridge), and Connections to Other Bibliographic Activities at the Beginning of the 20th Century”, 143.

27Otlet, “Transformations in the Bibliographical Apparatus of the Sciences”, 149.

28Paul Otlet, “Something about Bibliography,” in International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge: Selected Essays of Paul Otlet, ed. W. Boyd Rayward (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1990), 17.

29Bernd Frohmann, “The Role of Facts in Paul Otlet’s Modernist Project of Documentation”, in European Modernism and the Information Society : Informing the Present, Understanding the Past / edited by by, ed. W. Boyd Rayward (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2008), 80, http://www.fims.uwo.ca/people/faculty/frohmann/Documents/Role%20of%20Facts_proof.pdf (visited on May 30, 2008).

30Paul Otlet, “The Science of Bibliography and Documentation,” in International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge: Selected Essays of Paul Otlet, ed. W. Boyd Rayward (1903; Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1990), 83.

31Ibidem, 83-84.

32Rayward, “Visions of Xanadu”.

33Alex Wright, “The Web Time Forgot,” The New York Times (June 17, 2008), http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/17/science/17mund.html?pagewanted=print (accessed June 17, 2008).

34Footnote 11 in W. Boyd Rayward, “H.G. Wells’s Idea of a World Brain: A Critical re-Assessment,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 50 (May 15, 1999): 32, http://people.lis.uiuc.edu/~wrayward/Wellss_Idea_of_World_Brain.htm (visited on September 20, 2006).

35H.G. Wells, A Modern Utopia, 10th edition, 6424 (1905; Project Gutenberg EBook, 2004), §5.6, http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext04/mdntp10h.htm (accessed September 20, 2006).

36H.G. Wells, “The Open Conspiracy,” 2002, http://www.mega.nu:8080/ampp/hgwells/hg_cont.htm (visited on September 20, 2006).

37Dave Muddiman, “The Universal Library as Modern Utopia: the Information Society of H. G. Wells,” Library History 14 (November 1998): 87.

38The dystopian character of such technology use by the state is noted by Rayward, “H.G. Wells’s Idea of a World Brain” and Muddiman, “The Universal Library as Modern Utopia”

39H. G. Wells, Julian S. Huxley, and G. P. Wells, The Science of Life: A Summary of Contemporary Knowledge about Life and Its Possibilities I,II,III (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran, 1931), 1451.

40Otlet, “Something about Bibliography”, 17; Hapke, “Wilhelm Ostwald, the ‘Brücke’ (Bridge), and Connections to Other Bibliographic Activities at the Beginning of the 20th Century”, 141.

41Wells, “The Idea of a World Encyclopedia”, 919-921; Wells, Huxley, and Wells, The Science of Life, 1471; Wells, “The Idea of a World Encyclopedia”, 924.

42H.G. Wells, World Brain (London: Methuen, 1938), 54, 49.

43Wells, A Modern Utopia, §5.

44Wells, World Brain, 55.

45Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Neutral Point of View (oldid=249390830)”.

46Wells, “The Idea of a World Encyclopedia”, 921.

47Wells habit of working with others’ work at hand is mentioned in H.G. Wells, Experiment in Autobiography: Discoveries and Conclusions of a Very Ordinary Brain (since 1866) (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1934), 614-618. Accusations of plagiari sm are recounted in A. B. McKillop, The Spinster and the Prophet (New York: 4 Walls 8 Windows, 2002).

48Suzanne Briet, *Entre Aisne et Meuse . . . et au delà*, Les cahiers ardennais 22. (Charleville-Mezières: Société de Ecrivains Ardennais, 1976), 87, quoted in Mary Niles Maack, “The Lady and the Antelope: Suzanne Briet’s Contribution to the French Documentation Movement,” Online preprint, Library Trends 52, number 4 (March 22, 2004): 5, http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/maack/BrietPrePress.htm (visited on December 7, 2006).

49Anthony West, H. G. Wells: Aspects of the Life (New York: Random House, 1984), 147-148.

50The belief in a technology mediated peace did not completely expire, as discussed in Wendy Grossman, “Why the Net Won’t Deliver World Peace,” The Daily Telegraph (London) (December 9, 1997): 10.

51Andrew Pam, “Xanadu FAQ,” April 12, 2002, http://www.xanadu.com.au/xanadu/faq.html (visited on November 7, 2008).

52Theodor Holm Nelson, Literary Machines: The Report on, and of, Project Xanadu concerning Word Processing, Electronic Publishing, Hypertext, Thinkertoys, Tomorrow’s Intellectual Revolution, and Certain Other Topics Including Knowledge, Education and Freedom, 91.1 (Sausalito, CA: Mindful Press, 1992), dedications, and chap. 0.

53Rayward, “Visions of Xanadu”.

54Project Xanadu, “Project Xanadu History,” May 23, 2001, http://www.xanadu.com/HISTORY/ (visited on November 7, 2008).

55Nelson, Literary Machines.

56Kevin Kelly, “We Are the Web,” Wired 13, number 08 (August 2005), http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.08/tech_pr.html (visited on September 13, 2007).

57Nelson, Literary Machines, 0/13.

58H.G. Wells, “H. G. Wells,” in I Believe; The Personal Philosophies of Certain Eminent Men and Women of Our Time, Edited, with an Introduction and Biographical Notes, by Clifton Fadiman, ed. Clifton Fadiman (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1939), 422-423.

59This is similar to the observation that "Each generation imagines itself to be more intelligent than the one that went before it, and wiser than the one that comes after it" by George Orwell, In Front of Your Nose, 1945-1950 (Collected Essays Journalism, & Letters of George Orwell, ed. Sonia Orwell and Ian Angus (Boston: David R Godine, 2000), http://books.google.com/books?id=zaxG_3ivhVAC (visited on December 16, 2008).

60Gary Wolf, “The Curse of Xanadu,” Wired 3, number 06 (June 1995), http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/3.06/xanadu_pr.html (visited on November 7, 2008); Theodor Holm Nelson, “Rants and Raves,” Wired 3, number 09 (September 1995), http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/3.09/rants.html (visited on November 7, 2008); Theodor Holm Nelson, “Errors in ‘The Curse of Xanadu,’ by Gary Wolf,” 1995, http://www.xanadu.com.au/ararat (visited on November 7, 2008).

61Project Xanadu, “Project Xanadu,” June 16, 2007, http://xanadu.com/ (accessed November 7, 2008); also see Theodor Holm Nelson, “I Don’t Buy in,” January 8, 2003, http://ted.hyperland.com/buyin.txt (visited on November 7, 2008).

62A concise history of hypertext can be found in chapter 11 of Wright, Glut.

63Michael Hart, “History and Philosophy of Project Gutenberg,” Project Gutenberg, August 1992, http://www.gutenberg.org/about/history (visited on October 29, 2005).

64Michael Hart, “Historical Draft on Digital Encyclopedias,” email message to author, January 3, 2006, doi:Pine.LNX.4.60.06010314 07550.5063@pglaf.org; Robert Hobbes Zakon, “Hobbes’ Internet Timeline V8.1,” 2005, http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/ (visited on January 6, 2006).

65Hart, “History and Philosophy of Project Gutenberg”.

66Marie Lebert, “Michael Hart: Changing the World through E-Books,” Project Gutenberg, June 21, 2004, http://pge.rastko.net/about/marie_lebert (accessed October 29, 2005).

67Hart, “Historical Draft on Digital Encyclopedias”.

68Distributed Proofreaders, “Beginning Proofreaders’ Frequently Asked Questions”, Project Gutenberg’s Distributed Proofreaders, May 27, 2004, http://www.pgdp.net/c/faq/ProoferFAQ.php (visited on October 29, 2005).

69Yochai Benkler, “Coase’s Penguin, or, Linux and the Nature of the Firm,” The Yale Law Journal 112, number 3 (2002): 369–446, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1562247 (visited on January 15, 2003); Lee Sproull, “Online Communities,” in The Internet Encyclopedia, ed. Hossein Bidgoli (New York: John Wiley, 2003), 733–744.

70Nelson, Literary Machines, 0/7.

71For discussion of these issues see the thread following Holden McGroin, “Encyclopaedia Britannica,” December 14, 2002, http://osdir.com/ml/culture.literature.e-books.gutenberg.volunteers/2002-12/msg00016.html (visited on June 17, 2008).

72Stephen Shankland, “Patent Reveals Google’s Book-Scanning Advantage,” CNet, May 4, 2009, http://news.cnet.com/8301-11386_3-10232931-76.html (visited on June 3, 2009).

73Distributed Proofreaders, “Distributed Proofreaders Update,” Distributed Proofreaders, October 19, 2005, http://www.pg-news.org/nl_archives/2004/other_2004_10_19_dp_5000_milestone.txt (visited on November 3, 2005).

74Discussion of the incorporation of EB11 content as well as its use to identify topical blind spots in Wikipedia coverage can be found in Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:1911 Encyclopedia Topics,” Wikipedia, January 20, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=185703554 (visited on June 28, 2008); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica,” Wikipedia, June 24, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=221369034 (visited on June 28, 2008); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia Talk:1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica,” Wikipedia, June 22, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=221064825 (visited on June 28, 2008).

75Hart, “Historical Draft on Digital Encyclopedias”.

76bowerbird, “The Heart and Soul of Project Gutenberg,” January 30, 2004, http://osdir.com/ml/culture.literature.e-books.gutenberg.volunteers/2004-01/msg00332.html (visited on June 17, 2008).

77Doug Wilson and Alan M. Reynard, “Interpedia Frequently Asked Questions and Answers,” comp.infosystems.interpedia, January 17, 1994, http://groups.google.com/group/comp.infosystems.interpedia/msg/05d4734a3d1a03a6 (visited on October 27, 2005), Q1.

78Wikipedia, “Interpedia,” Wikipedia, May 8, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=288627597 (visited on May 29, 2009).

79WAIS was developed by Brewster Kahle, Internet entrepreneur and founder of the Internet Archive – a resource I often use to find sources that are no longer available on the Web. Throughout his career he has been an advocate for "universal access to all of human knowledge," see Joseph Menn, “Net Archive Turns Back 10 Billion Pages of Time”, dvd-discuss, October 25, 2001, http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/archive/dvd-discuss/msg15687.html (visited on March 3, 2008); Roy Rosenzweig, “Scarcity or Abundance? Preserving the past and the Digital Era,” American Historical Review 108, number 3 (June 2003): 735–762, http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/108.3/rosenzweig.html (accessed March 3, 2008).

80Wilson and Reynard, “Interpedia Frequently Asked Questions and Answers”, Q2.6.

81Ibidem, Q1.2, Q1.1, Q4.5.

82Ibidem, Q4.2.

83Ibidem, Q3.5.2.

84Foster Stockwell, A History of Information Storage and Retrieval (Jefferson, NC: Macfarlane, 2001), http://books.google.com/books?id=bYGrRynxtMUC (accessed February 23, 2005).

85Jorn Barger, “Beyond the Interpedia?,” alt.internet.search, August 15, 1997, http://groups.google.com/group/alt.internet.search/msg/da917af65e3ca53c?hl=en (visited on October 27, 2005).

86Distributed Encyclopedia, “The Distributed Encyclopedia Introduction”, October 8, 1999, http://web.archive.org/web/19991118223016/members.aol.com/distency/intro.htm (visited on November 3, 2005).

87Cynthia Barnett, “Wiki Mania,” Florida Trend (October 18, 2005), http://web.archive.org/web/20060314132815/http://www.floridatrend.com/issue/default.asp?a=5617&s=1&d=9/1/2005 (visited on October 18, 2005).

88Patrick Shannon, “Regarding Sanger and Shannon’s Review of Y2K News Reports,” January 11, 2000, http://www.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id=002I9H (accessed October 27, 2005).

89Larry Sanger, “Introduction,” nupedia-l, April 17, 2000, http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-April/000143.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

90Larry Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: a Memoir”, Slashdot, April 18, 2005, http://features.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=05/04/18/164213 (visited on April 19, 2005).

91Gouthro, “Building the World’s Biggest Encyclopedia”.

92Larry Sanger, “I Am a Clueless Newbie,” nupedia-l, March 9, 2000, http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-March/000003.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

93Wales, “Hi...”

94Larry Sanger, “602 Members,” nupedia-l, March 15, 2000, http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-March/000022.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

95Nupedia, “Nupedia.Com Editorial Policy Guidelines,” November 16, 2000, http://web.archive.org/web/20010410002647/www.nupedia.com/policy.shtml (accessed October 24, 2005).

96Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia”.

97The steps of the Nupedia process are excerpted within a case study of Wikipedia: Karim R. Lakhani and Andrew P. Mcafee, Case Study: Wikipedia (Harvard Business School, January 30, 2007), http://courseware.hbs.edu/public/cases/wikipedia/ (accessed February 23, 2007).

98Jimmy Wales, “Will The Real Nupedia Please Stand Up?,” Slashdot, January 20, 2001, http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=10074&cid=494316 (visited on October 25, 2005).

99Richard Stallman, “Historical Draft on Digital Encyclopedias,” email message to author, December 22, 2005, doi:E1EpzGg-0000AU-Ni@fencepost.gnu.org.

100Richard Stallman, “The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Learning Resource”, Free Software Foundation, 1999, http://www.gnu.org/encyclopedia/free-encyclopedia.html (visited on October 11, 2005).

101Erik Moeller, “Quality.Wikimedia.Org and Wikiquality-l Launched,” Wikimedia, September 17, 2007, http://marc.info/?i=b80736c80709171358g6fd70693wadd14047e739a69f@mail.gmail.com (visited on September 18, 2007); Wikimedia, “Wikiquality/Portal,” Wikimedia, April 14, 2009, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=1459225 (visited on June 3, 2009).

102Stallman, “The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Learning Resource”.

103Richard Stallman, “Wale’s Explaination of the Stallman Incident,” wikipedia-l, October 27, 2005, http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=wikipedia-l&m=113042306304247 (visited on October 27, 2005).

104Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web: the Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by Its Inventor (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1999), 84.

105Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler, and Ora Lassila, “The Semantic Web”, Scientific American Magazine (May 17, 2001), http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=the-semantic-web&print=true (accessed March 26, 2008).

106Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web, 67.

107Ibidem, 70.

108Ben Kovitz, “User:BenKovitz,” Wikipedia, February 23, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=272830137 (visited on February 24, 2009).

109Larry Sanger, “Let’s Make a Wiki,” Nupedia, January 10, 2001, http://web.archive.org/web/20030414014355/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2001-January/000676.html (visited on November 15, 2005).

110Wikipedia, “History of Wikipedia (oldid=262685944)”.

111Larry Sanger, “Wikipedia Is Now Useful!,” Wikipedia, June 26, 2001, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Announcements_2001#June_26.2C_2001 (visited on November 15, 2005).

112Larry Sanger, “Interpedia Is Dead–Long Live Wikipedia,” comp.infosystems.interpedia, September 23, 2001, http://groups.google.com/group/comp.infosystems.interpedia/msg/bb038fa078a1bf8d?hl=en (visited on November 3, 2005).

113Wikipedia, “Nupedia,” Wikipedia, December 21, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=259360273 (visited on January 8, 2009).

114Keith Hopper, “Odd Wiki CollectiveProblemSolving: Homepage,” March 20, 2008, http://www.communitywiki.org/odd/CollectiveProblemSolving/HomePage (visited on March 20, 2008).

115Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia”.

116Larry Sanger, “Re: Admins (I Suspect LMS) Permanently Deleting Things”, wikipedia-l, November 4, 2001, http://marc.info/?l=wikipedia-l&m=104216623606507&w=2 (visited on November 4, 2001).

117Jimmy Wales, “Re: Sanger’s Memoirs,” Wikipedia, April 20, 2005, http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=4265EB8D.7020607@wikia.com (accessed November 15, 2005).

118Citizendium, “Citizendium,” Citizendium, June 17, 2008, http://en.citizendium.org/?oldid=100354482 (visited on June 30, 2008).

119The latest “co-founding” controversy was prompted by an interview with Jimmy Wales when he agreed with an interviewer’s question that Sanger’s claims were shaky because “he basically just put himself down as co-founder” on early press releases, in Ian Johns and Jimmy Wales, “Interview with Wikipedia Founder Jimmy Wales,” Big Oak SEO Blog, April 2, 2009, http://www.bigoakinc.com/blog/interview-with-wikipedia-founder-jimmy-wales/ (accessed April 9, 2009). This prompted an “open letter” from Larry Sanger, “An Open Letter to Jimmy Wales,” wikien-l, April 9, 2009, http://marc.info/?i=CDBFF612F0E04950A50B6F751478E1E9@D7WRQ591 (visited on April 9, 2009). Interestingly, the most credible and detailed account of the birth of the Wikipedia idea differs from both Wales’ and Sanger’s recollections, see Kovitz, “User:BenKovitz (oldid=272830137)”.

120Herb Brody, “Great Expectations: Why Technology Predictions Go Awry”, chapter 9 in Technology and the Future, 7th edition, ed. Albert H. Teich (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997); Paul Ceruzzi, “An Unforseen Revolution: Computers and Expectations, 1935-1985,” chapter 10 in Technology and the Future, 7th edition, ed. Albert H. Teich (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997).

121Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia”. An example of early uncertainty about the character of Wikipedia, and the origins of the talk/discussion page, is seen in an early experience with Wikipedia: “If Wikipedia is to be an encyclopedia, then it probably is not appropriate to have threaded discussions on a subject page,” by Timothy Shell, “A Few Comments about Wikipedia,” wikipedia-l, January 27, 2001, http://markmail.org/message/lviwxgwjlpvrqph5 (visited on April 1, 2009).

122Ted Pappas citing G. Donald Hudson, Walter Yust, eds., *Encyclopædia Britannica World Atlas* (Chicago: Britannica, 1956), as confirmed and identified to me by Tom Panelas, director of Britannica corporate communications, from A. J. Jacobs, The-Know-It-All: One Man’s Humble Quest to Become the Smartest Person in the World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004), 341, http://books.google.com/books?id=VQ3kPyFWfxYC (visited on April 3, 2006).

Chapter  3

1Wikipedia, “User:Raul654/Raul’s Laws (oldid=301373968)”.

2Ulrike Pfeil, Panayiotis Zaphiris, and Chee Siang Ang, “Cultural Differences in Collaborative Authoring of Wikipedia,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12, number 1 (2006), http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol12/issue1/pfeil.html (accessed March 13, 2006); Andrew Lih, The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World’s Greatest Encyclopedia (New York: Hyperion, 2009), chapter 6.

3Clifford Geertz, “Thick Description: toward an Interpreted Theory of Culture”, chapter 1 in The Interpretation of Cultures and Local Knowledge, ed. Clifford Geertz (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1973), 3–30; Raymond Williams, Keywords: a Vocabulary of Culture and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983); Marshall Sahlins, Apologies to Thucydides: Understanding History as Culture and Vice Versa (Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2004), http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/734005.html (visited on April 17, 2006).

4Simon Blackburn, “Culture,” in The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, ed. Simon Blackburn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t98.e800 (visited on February 16, 2005).

5Edgar H. Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 3rd edition (San Francisco: John Whiley & Sons, 2004), 14, 32.

6Dave Pollard, “Will That Be Coordination, Cooperation, or Collaboration?,” How to Save the World, March 25, 2005, http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/03/25.html (visited on February 27, 2006); Patricia Montiel-Overall, “Toward a Theory of Collaboration for Teachers and Librarians,” American Library Association 8 (2005), http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/aaslpubsandjournals/slmrb/slmrcontents/volume82005/theory.cfm (visited on February 27, 2006).

7Lore Sjberg, “The Wikipedia FAQK,” April 19, 2006, http://www.wired.com/software/webservices/commentary/alttext/2006/04/70670 (visited on April 6, 2007).

8Cass R. Sunstein, Why Societies Need Dissent (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), http://books.google.com/books?id=0yvPaXt3lyoC (accessed February 15, 2007).

9Steve Weber, The Success of Open Source (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 3.

10For a definition and theoretical models of "interdependent decision making," see Harold H. Kelley et al., An Atlas of Interpersonal Situations (New York: Cambridge, 2003), http://books.google.com/books?id=6HCMySTodUoC.

11Michael Schrage, Shared Minds: the New Technologies of Collaboration (New York: Random House, 1990), 40.

12Jenkins, Textual Poachers; Henry Jenkins, “Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century,” Confessions of an Aca/Fan, October 20, 2006, http://www.henryjenkins.org/2006/10/confronting_the_challenges_of.html (accessed October 10, 2007).

13Douglas C. Engelbart, Augmenting Human Intellect: a Conceptual Framework (Menlo Park, Ca.: SRI Project 3578 for Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Stanford Research Institute, October 1962), 4D, http://dougengelbart.org/pubs/augment-3906.html (visited on May 21, 2007).

14Christopher Kelty, “Geeks, Social Imaginaries, and Recursive Publics,” Cultural Anthropology 20, number 2 (2005): 185–214, http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/pdf/10.1525/can.2005.20.2.185 (accessed September 19, 2005).

15Etienne Wenger, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 58.

16Christian Reinhardt, “Collaborative Knowledge Creation in Virtual Communities of Practice” (Master’s thesis, Department of Value-Prcoess Management, Marketing University of Innsbruck, 2003), http://web.archive.org/web/20031005154931/http://kde.klevahhehd.com/.

17Wenger, Communities of Practice, 66-68.

18Ward Cunningham, quoted in Scott Rosenberg, Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software (New York: Crown Publishers, 2007), 138.

19Wikipedia, “Portland Pattern Repository,” Wikipedia, June 6, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=136308262 (visited on June 22, 2007).

20Kent Beck et al., “Manifesto for Agile Software Development,” 2001, http://agilemanifesto.org/ (visited on April 6, 2007).

21Wikipedia, “Wikipedia Talk:Consensus,” Wikipedia, July 9, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=224676549 (visited on July 11, 2008).

22Ward Cunningham, “Keynote: Wikis Then and Now,” Wikimania, August 2005, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikimania_2005_Presentations#Keynotes (accessed August 24, 2007).

23Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Red Link,” Wikipedia, November 15, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=171608519 (visited on November 16, 2007).

24Natalia Levina and Emmanuelle Vaast, “The Emergence of Boundary Spanning Competence in Practice: Implications for Implementation and Use of Information Systems,” MIS Quarterly 29, number 1 (June 1, 2005), http://archive.nyu.edu/bitstream/2451/14121/1/CeDER-04-07.pdf (visited on January 15, 2007).

25These quotes correspond to minutes 21-23 in Cunningham, “Keynote”.

26Nicholason Baker, “The Charms of Wikipedia,” The New York Review of Books 55, number 4 (March 20, 2008), http://www.nybooks.com/articles/21131 (accessed March 19, 2008).

27Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Project Namespace (oldid=174790757)”; Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Meta,” Wikipedia, March 28, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=118648488 (visited on April 5, 2007).

28Meatball, “MeatballBackgrounder,” Meatball Wiki, April 12, 2006, http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?MeatballBackgrounder (visited on April 12, 2006).

29Jean Le Rond D’Alembert, Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot (1751), ed. Richard N. Schwab and Walter E. Rex (Indianapolis: ITT Bobbs-Merrill, 1963), 32, http://books.google.com/books?id=4ARbqtiZfwAC (visited on September 1, 2006).

30Susan L. Bryant, Andrea Forte, and Amy Bruckman, “Becoming Wikipedian: Transformation of Participation in a Collaborative Online Encyclopedia,” in Proceedings of the 2005 International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work (New York: ACM, 2005), http://www.cc.gatech.edu/~aforte/BryantForteBruckBecomingWikipedian.pdf (accessed February 8, 2007).

31Benkler, “Coase’s Penguin, or, Linux and the Nature of the Firm”; Sproull, “Online Communities”.

32Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Be Bold,” Wikipedia, August 12, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=150720434 (visited on August 13, 2007).

33Fernanda B. Viegas et al., “Talk before You Type: Coordination in Wikipedia,” in Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2007), http://www.hicss.hawaii.edu/hicss_40/decisionbp/03_04_07.pdf (visited on January 26, 2007); Fernanda B. Viegas, Martin Wattenberg, and Matthew M. Mckeon, “The Hidden Order of Wikipedia,” in Online Communities and Social Computing, Second International Conference, OCSC 2007, Held as Part of HCI International 2007, ed. Douglas Schuler (Springer, July 22–27, 2007), 445–454, http://researchweb.watson.ibm.com/visual/papers/hidden_order_wikipedia.pdf (accessed October 2, 2007).

34Stuart Geiger and David Ribes, “The Work of Sustaining Order in Wikipedia: the Banning of a Vandal,” in Proceedings of Computer Supported Collaborative Work 2010 (ACM, February 2010), http://www.stuartgeiger.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/cscw-sustaining-order-wikipedia.pdf (visited on August 12, 2009).

35Jimmy Wales, “Naturally Occurring Conflicts?,” Air-l, March 28, 2007, http://listserv.aoir.org/pipermail/air-l-aoir.org/2007-March/012640.html (accessed March 28, 2007).

36Jae Yun Moon and Lee Sproul, “Essence of Distributed Work: the Case of the Linux Kernel,” chapter 16 in Distributed Work, ed. Pamela Hinds and Sara Kiesler (Boston, MA: MIT Press, 2002), 398, http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1479/1394; Felix Stalder, “On the Differences between Open Source and Open Culture”, NODE.London, March 2006, http://publication.nodel.org/On-the-Differences (accessed June 5, 2006), 4; Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), 69, http://www.benkler.org/wealth_of_networks/index.php/Main_Page (accessed December 5, 2007).

37Bo Leuf and Ward Cunningham, The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web (Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2001), 322.

38Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Policies and Guidelines,” Wikipedia, April 10, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=121662697 (visited on April 10, 2007).

39Wikipedia, “Wikipedia Talk:Assume Good Faith,” Wikipedia, March 31, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=119194758 (visited on April 10, 2007).

40Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Policies and Guidelines (oldid=121662697)”.

41Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Trifecta,” Wikipedia, November 22, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=253357789 (visited on May 29, 2009).

42Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Five Pillars,” Wikipedia, August 15, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=308208396 (visited on August 18, 2009).

43My belief in the importance of NPOV and "good faith" is shared with Daniel H. Pink, “The Book Stops Here,” Wired 13, number 3 (March 2005), http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.03/wiki_pr.html (visited on March 1, 2005).

44Wikipedia, “Talk:Evolution,” Wikipedia, April 6, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=120622805 (visited on April 6, 2007).

45Jimmy Wales, “Re: Sanger’s Memoirs,” Wikipedia, April 20, 2005, http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=4265F203.3080905@wikia.com (accessed November 15, 2005); Jimmy Wales, Fuzheado, and Liam Wyatt, “Interview W/Jimmy Wales,” Wikipedia Weekly, May 8, 2008, http://wikipediaweekly.org/2008/05/08/episode-48-interview-wjimmy-wales/ (accessed June 25, 2008), minute 33.

46Wikipedia, “User:Raul654/Raul’s Laws (oldid=301373968)”.

47Wikipedia, “Troll (Internet),” Wikipedia, June 29, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=222394236 (visited on July 2, 2008).

48Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Content Forking,” Wikipedia, July 16, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=144910303 (visited on August 13, 2007). This strategy of indirection and encapsulation is reminiscent of Diderot’s approach to using cross-references in the Encyclopédie, the technique of “renvois,” so as to confuse and elude censors as described in Stockwell, A History of Information Storage and Retrieval, 91. This approach is further discussed in the contemporary context by Michael Zimmer, “Renvois of the past, Present and Future: Hyperlinks and the Structuring of Knowledge from the Encyclopédie to Web 2.0,” New Media Society 11, number 95 (2009), http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/11/1-2/95 (visited on April 17, 2009).

49Wikipedia, “User:Salva31,” Wikipedia, March 28, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=118549019 (visited on April 6, 2007).

50Wikipedia, “Talk:Evolution/Archive 2,” Wikipedia, December 21, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=95781264 (visited on February 7, 2007).

51Wikipedia, “User:Graft,” Wikipedia, March 23, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=117319977 (visited on April 6, 2007).

52Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Neutral Point of View,” Wikipedia, September 16, 2004, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=6042007 (visited on March 5, 2004); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Neutral Point of View (oldid=249390830)”.

53Much like my earlier comments on the ambiguity – and richness – of the concepts of culture and collaboration, "neutral" is also a provocative notion; for 23 different senses of the word, see Roland Barthes, The Neutral, trans. Rosalind E. Krauss and Denis Hollier (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005).

54Joseph Reagle, “Is the Wikipedia Neutral?,” Wikimedia, 2006, http://wikimania2006.wikimedia.org/wiki/Presenters/Joseph_Reagle (visited on August 1, 2006).

55Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Neutral Point of View,” Wikipedia, April 6, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=47268215 (visited on April 6, 2006).

56Nupedia, “Nupedia.Com Editorial Policy Guidelines”.

57Jacobs, The-Know-It-All. A similar effort of reading the whole OED is documented by Ammon Shea, Reading the OED: One Man, One Year, 21,730 Pages (New York: Penguin Group, 2008).

58Andrew Gray, “Re: Librarians, Professors, and Pundits,” Wikipedia-l, July 22, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=f3fedb0d0507221318227f43c8@mail.gmail.com (accessed July 22, 2005).

59Larry Sanger, “Epistemic Circularity,” 2000, http://enlightenment.supersaturated.com/essays/text/larrysanger/diss/preamble.html (visited on October 21, 2005).

60Objectivism WWW Service, “Objectivism-Related E-Mail Lists,” December 29, 1995, http://web.archive.org/web/20071116084043/http://rous.redbarn.org/objectivism/mail-lists.html (visited on November 9, 2005).

61Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia”.

62Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Neutral Point of View (oldid=249390830)”.

63Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia”.

64Citizendium, “CZ:Neutrality Policy,” Citizendium, November 25, 2007, http://en.citizendium.org/?oldid=100222609 (visited on November 8, 2008).

65Larry Sanger, “Re: Nupedia: Questions,” nupedia-l, March 10, 2000, http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-March/000006.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

66Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Writing for the Enemy,” Wikipedia, February 8, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=269389427 (visited on March 11, 2009).

67Jimmy Wales, “Re: Bias,” nupedia-l, May 21, 2000, http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-May/000343.html (visited on December 7, 2006).

68Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Writing for the Enemy,” Wikipedia, April 18, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=49041942 (visited on April 21, 2006).

69Meatball, “AssumeGoodFaith,” Meatball Wiki, September 16, 2006, http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?AssumeGoodFaith (visited on February 8, 2007).

70Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Writing for the Enemy (oldid=49041942)”.

71Yochai Benkler and Helen Nissenbaum, “Commons-Based Peer-Production and Virtue,” The Journal of Political Philosophy 14, number 4 (2006): 13, http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/papers/jopp_235.pdf (visited on October 16, 2006).

72Leuf and Cunningham, The Wiki Way, 323.

73Gabriella Coleman, “Three Ethical Moments in Debian: the Making of an (Ethical) Hacker, Part III,” chapter 6 in The Social Construction of Freedom in Free and Open Source Software: Actors, Ethics, and the Liberal Tradition (2005), 26, http://healthhacker.org/biella/coleman-chapter-six.pdf (visited on September 9, 2005).

74Larry Wall, “Diligence, Patience, and Humility,” in Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution, 1st edition (Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly, January 1999), http://oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/larry.html (visited on February 23, 2007).

75Leuf and Cunningham, The Wiki Way, 328-329.

76Georg von Krogh, “Care in Knowledge Creation,” California Management Review 40, number 3 (Spring 1998): 137, http://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/export/DL/30618.pdf (visited on May 4, 2006).

77Benkler and Nissenbaum, “Commons-Based Peer-Production and Virtue”.

78For possible media effects on conflict, see J. B. Walther, “Computer-Mediated Communication: Impersonal, Interpersonal, and Hyperpersonal Interaction,” Communication Research 23 (1996): 1–43; Jay Briggs et al., “Lessons from a Dozen Years of Group Support Systems Research: a Discussion of Lab and Field Findings,” Journal of MIS 13 (1997): 163–207; Raymond A. Friedman and Stephen C. Currall, “Conflict Escalation: Dispute Exacerbating Elements of E-Mail Communication,” Human Relations 56 (2003): 1325–1347, http://hum.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/56/11/1325.pdf (visited on November 30, 2007). For conflict at the (virtual) community level, see Anna Duval Smith, “Problems of Conflict Management in Virtual Communities,” chapter 6 in Communities in Cyberspace, ed. Marc Smith and Peter Kollock (London: Routledge Press, 1999), http://www.advs.net/cinc.htm (visited on November 18, 2004). The author of Godwin’s Law is also famous for his seminal principles of how to meet the challenges of online community, see Mike Godwin, “Nine Principles for Making Virtual Communities Work,” Wired 2, number 6 (June 1994), http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.06/vc.principles.html (visited on September 27, 2007).

79Wikipedia, “Good Faith,” Wikipedia, May 7, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=128890878 (visited on May 17, 2007).

80Meatball, “AssumeGoodFaith”.

81Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Assume Good Faith,” Wikipedia, April 3, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=46719908 (visited on April 11, 2006).

82For the first instance of the AGF page, see Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Assume Good Faith,” Wikipedia, March 3, 2004, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=2617791 (accessed May 30, 2007); for the first comment on the talk page, see Wikipedia, “Wikipedia Talk:Assume Good Faith,” Wikipedia, February 13, 2005, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=10213525 (visited on May 30, 2007).

83Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Staying Cool When the Editing Gets Hot,” Wikipedia, October 25, 2002, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=383300 (visited on May 30, 2007).

84Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Etiquette,” Wikipedia, January 24, 2004, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=2219358 (visited on May 30, 2007).

85Richard Nisbett and Lee Ross, Human Inference (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1980), 247; Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, “Conflict Resolution: A Cognitive Perspective,” chapter 3 in Barriers to Conflict Resolution, ed. K. Arrow et al. (New York: Norton, 1995), 47.

86Catherine Cramton, “The Mutual Knowledge Problem and Its Consequences for Dispersed Collaboration,” Organization Science 12 (2001): 361, http://uainfo.arizona.edu/~weisband/distwork/cramton_2001.pdf.

87Wikipedia, “Hanlon’s Razor,” Wikipedia, January 26, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=266593813 (visited on March 27, 2009).

88Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Assume Stupidity,” Wikipedia, January 20, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=102052925 (visited on May 18, 2007).

89Meatball, “AssumeGoodFaith”.

90Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Assume Good Faith (oldid=46719908)”.

91Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Assume the Assumption of Good Faith,” Wikipedia, February 23, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=272707551 (visited on March 11, 2009).

92Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Assume Good Faith (oldid=46719908)”.

93Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:WikiLove,” Wikipedia, January 30, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=267504430 (visited on March 6, 2009).

94Wales, “Founder Letter Sept 2004”.

95Erik Moeller, “Re: Good Authors,” wikien-l, June 25, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=b80736c80606251525oe0ffccdyc32f7fd9e52d6d45@mail.gmail.com (visited on June 25, 2006).

96This is similar to the distinction between “selfish,” “altruistic,” and “socially concerned” classes of incentives in wiki contributions in Camille Roth, “Viable Wikis: Struggle for Life in the Wikisphere,” in (ACM, October 2007), http://www.wikisym.org/ws2007/_publish/Roth_WikiSym2007_ViableWikis.pdf (visited on December 13, 2007).

97A. Galinsky and T. Mussweiler, “First Offers as Anchors: The Role of Perspective Taking and Negotiator Focus,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (2001): 659, http://content.apa.org/journals/psp/81/4/657.pdf (visited on October 18, 2004).

98David Bohm, On Dialog, ed. Lee Nichol (New York: Routledge, 1996); Daniel Yankelovich, “The Magic of Dialogue,” The Nonprofit Quarterly 8, number 3 (Fall 2001), http://www.nonprofitquarterly.org/content/view/120/28/ (visited on November 24, 2004); Jennifer Preece and Kambiz Ghozati, “Experiencing Empathy Online,” in The Internet and Health Communication: Experience and Expectations, ed. R. R. Rice and J. E. Katz (Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2001), 233; Krogh, “Care in Knowledge Creation”, 137.

99Elinor Ostrom, “Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms,” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 14, number 3 (Summer 2000): 137–158, http://www.santafe.edu/events/workshops/images/b/b3/Ostrom2000.pdf (accessed November 22, 2008).

100Jennifer Preece, “Etiquette, Empathy and Trust in Communities of Practice: Stepping-Stones to Social Capital,” Journal of Universal Computer Science 10, number 3 (2004): 2, http://www.jucs.org/jucs_10_3/etiquette_empathy_and_trust/Preece_J.html (visited on May 16, 2005); Krogh, “Care in Knowledge Creation”, 136; Cormac Lawler, “Wikipedia as a Learning Community: Content, Conflict and the ‘Common Good’”, Wikimedia, 2005, http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Transwiki:Wikimania05/Paper-CL1 (visited on September 1, 2005).

101Sirkka Jarvenpaa and Dorothy Leidner, “Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams,” Organization Science 10, number 6 (November 1999): 792, http://hyperion.math.upatras.gr/commorg/jarvenpaa/ (visited on March 13, 2004).

102Roderick M. Kramer and Peter J. Carnevale, “Trust and Intergroup Negotiation”, in Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intergroup Relations, ed. R. Brown and S. Gaertner (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 2001), 8.

103Michael Sheeran, Beyond Majority Rule: Voteless Decisions in the Religious Society of Friends (Philadelphia, PA: Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 1996), 66.

104Wikipedia, “User:Raul654/Raul’s Laws (oldid=301373968)”.

105For a seminal treatment of altruism, see Robert L. Trivers, “The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism,” The Quarterly Review of Biology 46, number 1 (March 1971): 35–57, http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/2822435 (visited on June 5, 2006). In a small survey of Wikipedians, there were many more “pure” or “pragmatic” altruists than “selfish” individualists, see Christian Wagner and Pattarawan Prasarnphanich, “Innovating Collaborative Content Creation: the Role of Altruism and Wiki Technology,” in Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Washington, DC: IEEE, 2007), http://www2.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/HICSS.2007.277 (accessed July 23, 2009).

106Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:WikiLove (oldid=267504430)”.

107Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:The World Will Not End Tomorrow,” Wikipedia, March 6, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=275454332 (visited on March 11, 2009).

108Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Office Actions,” Wikipedia, June 23, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=221153805 (visited on July 1, 2008).

109Jimmy Wales, “WikiEN-l] 2 Questions for Jimbo about WP:OFFICE and Things That Aren’t Labeled WP:OFFICE.,” wikien-l, April 24, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=444CF750.7000300@wikia.com (visited on April 24, 2006).

110Wikimedia, “Conflicting Wikipedia Philosophies,” Wikimedia, 2007, http://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Conflicting_Wikipedia_philosophies&amp (visited on May 15, 2007).

111Wikipedia, “List of Buffy the Vampire Slayer Episodes,” Wikipedia, August 6, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=306433749 (visited on August 13, 2009).

112Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Don’t Escalate,” Wikipedia, February 16, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=191949834 (visited on March 6, 2009).

113Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Candor,” Wikipedia, March 18, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=278065858 (visited on March 27, 2009).

114Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Articles for Deletion,” Wikipedia, May 3, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=128043238 (visited on May 15, 2007).

115Bryan Derksen, “Re: Article Deletion (Proposed 1 Month Hiatus),” wikien-l, September 13, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=432663FA.20806@shaw.ca (accessed September 13, 2005).

116Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Please Do Not Bite the Newcomers (oldid=245559838)”.

117Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Do Not Disrupt Wikipedia to Illustrate a Point”, Wikipedia, March 5, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=275119939 (accessed March 6, 2009).

118Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Wikipedia Is Not Therapy,” Wikipedia, December 26, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=260174442 (visited on May 29, 2009).

119Karl Fogel, “Producing Open Source Software: How to Run a Successful Free Software Project,” 2005, http://producingoss.com/en/producingoss.html (accessed February 4, 2008), 49.

120Jimmy Wales, “Re: To: Jimmy Wales - Admin-Driven Death of Wikipedia”, wikien-l, June 4, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=44833A94.3080606@wikia.com (accessed June 4, 2006).

121Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia”.

122Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Policies and Guidelines (oldid=121662697)”; wikis are said to be based on the concept that "people really can be polite and well mannered" in Leuf and Cunningham, The Wiki Way, 323.

123Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Civility,” Wikipedia, May 28, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=55584755 (visited on May 28, 2006).

124Mark Kingwell, A Civil Tongue: Justice, Dialogue and the Politics of Pluralism (Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 247.

125Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Civility,” Wikipedia, March 5, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=275263680 (visited on March 6, 2009).

126Kingwell, A Civil Tongue, 249.

127Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Civility (oldid=55584755)”.

128Wikipedia, “User:Raul654/Raul’s Laws (oldid=301373968)”, Law 250.

129Steven Shapin, A Social History of Truth: Civility and the Science in Seventeenth-Century England (Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1994).

130Analysis of discourse within online communities finds that politeness is correlated with technical topics and with being a Wikipedia administrator, see Moira Burke and Robert Kraut, “Mind Your Ps and Qs: The Impact of Politeness and Rudeness in Online Communities,” in Proceedings of the ACM 2008 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ACM, November 8, 2008), 37–46, http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1460563.1460609 (visited on May 27, 2009); Moira Burke and Robert Kraut, “Mopping up: Modeling Wikipedia Promotion Decisions,” in Proceedings of the ACM 2008 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ACM, November 8, 2008), 37–46, http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1460571 (visited on May 27, 2009).

131Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Civility/Poll,” Wikipedia, August 12, 2009, https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Wikipedia:Civility/Poll (accessed August 12, 2009).

132Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Department of Fun,” Wikipedia, March 15, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=277324016 (visited on March 18, 2009).

133Onion, “Congress Abandons WikiConstitution,” The Onion 41, number 39 (September 28, 2005), http://www.theonion.com/content/node/40990 (accessed October 8, 2005); Onion, “Wikipedia Celebrates 750 Years of American Independence”, The Onion 42, number 30 (July 28, 2006), http://www.theonion.com/content/node/50902 (visited on July 28, 2006).

134Jerry Holkins and Mike Krahulik, “Skeletor Editing Wikipedia’s He-Man Article,” Penny Arcade, May 3, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=128059883 (visited on May 18, 2007).

135Wikipedia, “Category:Wikipedia Humor,” Wikipedia, March 3, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=274733123 (visited on March 18, 2009).

136Wikimedia, “Category:Humor Songs and Poems,” Wikimedia, 2006, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=386342 (visited on October 23, 2006).

137Daniel R. Tobias, “I Am the Very Model of a Modern Wikipedian,” wikien-l, October 8, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=45282D0D.27600.830BAC1@dan.tobias.name (visited on October 8, 2006).

138Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Assume Bad Faith,” Wikipedia, April 30, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=127274333 (visited on May 18, 2007).

139Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Neutral Point of View (oldid=6042007)”.

140Wikimedia, “Don’t Be Dense,” Wikimedia, March 27, 2006, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=314371 (visited on April 12, 2006).

141Wikimedia, “AWWDMBJAWGCAWAIFDSPBATDMTD,” March 4, 2008, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=903231 (visited on May 6, 2008).

142Wikipedia, “User:Raul654/Raul’s Laws (oldid=301373968)”.

143Schrage, Shared Minds, 164.

144Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Sarcasm Is Really Helpful,” Wikipedia, February 20, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=272003931 (visited on March 11, 2009).

145Death Phoenix, “April Fool’s Day Proposal,” wikien-l, March 6, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=5c5f03dd0603061414q106fb34eyfda2976db69fb39b@mail.gmail.com (visited on March 6, 2006); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Pranking,” Wikipedia, January 7, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=262416467 (visited on March 18, 2009).

146Christopher Thieme, “Incivility, re: Psychosis,” wikien-l, January 15, 2007, http://marc.info/?i=b9bebe7a0701151206n42ebdbccse91c90af62c6ea98@mail.gmail.com (visited on January 15, 2007).

147Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:WikiLove (oldid=267504430)”.

148Leuf and Cunningham, The Wiki Way, 323.

149Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Collaboration First,” Wikipedia, February 5, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=268796710 (visited on March 6, 2009).

Chapter  4

1Wikipedia, “Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia,” Wikipedia, November 14, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=251850832 (visited on December 2, 2008).

2Douglas Rushkoff, Open Source Democracy: How Online Communication Is Changing Offline Politics (London: Demos, 2003), http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/opensourcedemocracy2 (visited on April 17, 2006); Eric Krangel, “Two Attempts at Opening up Religion Online,” NewAssignment.Net, January 9, 2007, http://www.newassignment.net/blog/eric_krangel/jan2007/01/religion_gets_op (accessed January 11, 2007); I review much of this usage in Joseph Reagle, “Notions of Openness”, in FM10 Openness: Code, Science, and Content: Selected Papers from the First Monday Conference (First Monday, May 15, 2006), http://reagle.org/joseph/2006/02/fm10-openness (visited on December 20, 2007).

3Robert Michels, Political Parties (1911), trans. Eden Paul and Cedar Paul (Ontario: Batoche Books, 2001), §6.2, http://socserv.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/michels/polipart.pdf (visited on December 4, 2007); Jo Freeman, “The Tyranny of Structurelessness: Why Organisations Need Some Structure to Ensure They Are Democratic,” Spunk Library, 1996, http://www.spunk.org/texts/consensu/sp000760.html (visited on December 16, 2003), 1; Mitch Kapor, quoted in Joseph Reagle, Internet Quotation Appendix (Berkman Center for Internet and Society, Harvard Law School, March 1999), http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/archived_content/people/reagle/inet-quotations-19990709.html (visited on December 20, 2007).

4Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Ignore All Rules,” Wikipedia, July 1, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=222901357 (visited on July 2, 2008).

5Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:What ‘Ignore All Rules’ Means,” Wikipedia, September 17, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=158433756 (accessed September 17, 2007).

6Jimbo Wales, “Statement of Principles,” Wikipedia, October 27, 2001, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=89244123 (visited on March 20, 2007).

7Joseph Reagle, “Open Content Communities,” M/C: A Journal of Media and Culture 7, number 3 (July 2004), http://journal.media-culture.org.au/0406/06_Reagle.rft.php (visited on July 1, 2004).

8Robert Neelly Bellah et al., Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life (Berkeley: University Of California Press, 1996), 333.

9Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis, “The Moral Economy of Communities: Structured Populations and the Evolution of Pro-Social Norms,” Evolution & Human Behavior 19, number 1 (1998): 3–25, http://www.umass.edu/preferen/gintis/prosocial.pdf (visited on December 11, 2006); Lee Sproull, Caryn A. Conley, and Jae Yun Moon, “Prosocial Behavior on the Net,” chapter 6 in The Social Net: the Social Psychology of the Internet, ed. Yair Amichahi-Hamburger (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 139–162, http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~cconley/Prosocial.pdf (visited on April 24, 2003).

10Reagle, “Open Content Communities”; Joseph Reagle, “Open Communities and Closed Law,” in In the Shade of the Commons -Towards a Culture of Open Networks, ed. Lipika Bansal, Paul Keller, and Geert Lovink (Waag Society Amsterdam, December 2006), 165–167, http://reagle.org/joseph/2006/10/10-open-community-closed-law (visited on January 23, 2007).

11Richard M. Stallman, “The Free Software Definition,” GNU, 2005, http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html (visited on April 5, 2006); OSI, “The Open Source Definition,” OSI, July 24, 2006, http://www.opensource.org/docs/definition.php (visited on November 7, 2007); Freedom Defined, “Definition of Free Cultural Works”, Freedom Defined, December 1, 2008, http://freedomdefined.org/Definition (accessed July 7, 2009).

12See Chris Dibona, Sam Ockman, and Mark Stone, Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution (Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly, 1999), http://oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/toc.html (visited on December 10, 2005); Sam Williams, Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software (Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly, 2002), http://oreilly.com/openbook/freedom/index.html (visited on April 29, 2004); Weber, The Success of Open Source; Samir Chopra and Scott Dexter, Decoding Liberation: the Promise of Free and Open Source Software (New York: Routledge, 2007), http://www.sci.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~bcfoss/DL/ (accessed November 30, 2007).

13Williams, Free as in Freedom.

14Richard M. Stallman, “The GNU Project,” GNU, June 16, 2005, http://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html (visited on April 5, 2006).

15OSI, “History of the OSI,” OSI, September 19, 2006, http://www.opensource.org/history (visited on November 7, 2007).

16Jimmy Wales quoted in Stacy Schiff, “Know It All: Can Wikipedia Conquer Expertise?,” The New Yorker (July 31, 2006): 3, http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/07/31/060731fa_fact (visited on August 16, 2006); referring to Eric Raymond, “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” 1997, http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/ (visited on April 29, 2004).

17Wales, “Statement of Principles (oldid=89244123)”.

18Eric Raymond, quoted in Schiff, “Know It All”, 8.

19dharma, “Agreed,” Kuro5hin, December 30, 2004, http://www.kuro5hin.org/story/2004/12/30/142458/25 (visited on December 31, 2004).

20Stalder, “On the Differences between Open Source and Open Culture”.

21Lawrence Lessig, Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock down Culture and Control Creativity (New York: Penguin Press, 2004), http://download.nowis.com/index.cfm?phile=FreeCulture.html (visited on April 17, 2006); a history of Creative Commons and the free culture movement is presented by David Bollier, Viral Spiral: How the Commoners Built a Digital Republic of Their Own (New York: New Press, 2009).

22Meatball, “MeatballBackgrounder”; Meatball, “FairProcess,” Meatball Wiki, November 9, 2007, http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?FairProcess (accessed November 9, 2007).

23For computers eroding accountability, see Helen Nissenbaum, “Accountability in a Computerized Society,” Science and Engineering Ethics 2, number 2 (1996): 25–42, http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/papers/accountability.pdf (accessed November 4, 2006); on furthering accountability, see Shay David, “Opening the Source of Accountability,” First Monday 9, number 11 (November 2004), http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_11/david/index.html (visited on November 11, 2005); Beth Simone Noveck, “Wiki-Government: How Open-Source Technology Can Make Government Decision-Making More Expert and More Democratic,” Democracy: A Journal of Ideas, number 7 (Winter 2007), http://www.democracyjournal.org/article.php?ID=6570 (visited on February 14, 2008).

24Jill Coffin, “Analysis of Open Source Principles and Diverse Collaborative Communities,” First Monday 11, number 6 (May 2006), http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue11_6/coffin/index.html (visited on October 2, 2007).

25Sean Hansen, Nicholas Berente, and Kalle Lyytinen, “Wikipedia, Critical Social Theory, and the Possibility of Rational Discourse,” The Information Society 25, number 1 (January 2009): 38–59, http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1483119 (visited on July 8, 2009).

26Wikimedia, “Steward Policies,” Wikimedia, October 25, 2007, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=724037 (visited on November 2, 2007).

27Wales, “Statement of Principles (oldid=89244123)”; Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Please Do Not Bite the Newcomers,” Wikipedia, March 5, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=275109391 (visited on March 6, 2009).

28Tony Sidaway, “Wikipedia and Autism,” wikien-l, October 11, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=605709b90510110104w6bcdf9d6g7f1fe5945d0d05a6@mail.gmail.com (visited on October 11, 2005).

29Wales, “Statement of Principles (oldid=89244123)”.

30Jimmy Wales, “Re: A Proposal for the New Software,” wikipedia-l, October 18, 2001, http://marc.info/?l=wikipedia-l&m=104216623606384&w=2 (visited on March 7, 2007).

31Jimmy Wales, “Why I Oppose a Cabal,” Nostalgia Wikipedia, October 26, 2001, http://nostalgia.wikipedia.org/?oldid=24911 (visited on March 7, 2008).

32Ronline, “The Wikipedia Ombudsman,” wikien-l, January 7, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=648f108b0601070134l616eb900u4f97b75522540e0f@mail.gmail.com (visited on January 7, 2006); Kelly Martin, “An Example of Transparency,” Nonbovine Ruminations, June 19, 2007, http://nonbovine-ruminations.blogspot.com/2007/06/example-of-transparency.html (visited on June 19, 2007).

33Wikipedia, “User:Raul654/Raul’s Laws (oldid=301373968)”.

34Meatball, “RightToFork,” Meatball Wiki, October 11, 2007, http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?RightToFork (visited on October 11, 2007).

35Weber, The Success of Open Source, 159, 92.

36David A. Wheeler, “Why Open Source Software/Free Software (OSS/FS)? Look at the Numbers!,” May 9, 2005, http://www.dwheeler.com/oss_fs_why.html (accessed October 1, 2004).

37Ascander Suarez and Juan Ruiz, “The Spanish Fork of Wikipedia,” in Proceedings of Wikimania (2005), http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Transwiki:Wikimania05/Paper-AS1 (accessed September 1, 2005).

38Larry Sanger, “Toward a New Compendium of Knowledge,” Citizendium, September 15, 2006, http://citizendium.org/essay.html (visited on December 20, 2007).

39Larry Sanger, “How’s the Unforking Going?,” Citizendium Forums, January 2007, http://forum.citizendium.org/index.php?topic=459.30;wap2 (accessed November 9, 2007); Larry Sanger, “Our Gift to the World: CC-by-Sa,” Citizendium Blog, December 21, 2007, http://blog.citizendium.org/2007/12/21/our-gift-to-the-world-cc-by-sa/ (accessed March 20, 2008). In November 2008 the GNU Foundation and Wikimedia Foundation did make it easier for content to flow between Wikimedia and Creative Commons projects, including Citizendium, by making the GFDL and CC licenses compatible/interoperable: see Mike Linksvayer, “Wikipedia/CC News: FSF Releases FDL 1.3,” Creative Commons Blog, November 3, 2008, http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/10443 (accessed November 3, 2008).

40Jimmy Wales, “Bias and Open Content Licensing,” nupedia-l, May 8, 2000, http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-May/000222.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

41Wikipedia, “Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia (oldid=251850832)”.

42Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:What Wikipedia Is Not,” Wikipedia, May 28, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=292975573 (visited on May 29, 2009).

43Because the term anonymous is persistently used by the community, despite my caveat that it really means “not logged in,” I will hereafter use it myself without further qualification unless required by the context.

44Evan Lehmann, “Rewriting History under the Dome,” Lowell Sun Online (January 27, 2006), http://www.lowellsun.com/ci_3444567 (visited on January 30, 2006); Wikipedia, “Congressional Staffer Edits to Wikipedia,” Wikipedia, February 18, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=109060581 (visited on March 8, 2007).

45Wikipedia, “Help:CheckUser,” Wikipedia, June 29, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=141475772 (visited on November 9, 2007).

46Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Banning Policy,” Wikipedia, March 16, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=115595742 (visited on March 16, 2007).

47Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:What Wikipedia Is Not (oldid=292975573)”.

48John Seigenthaler, “A False Wikipedia ‘Biography’,” USA Today (November 29, 2005), http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2005-11-29-wikipedia-edit_x.htm (visited on December 1, 2005).

49Associated Press, “Author of False Wikipedia Entry Apologizes: Tennessee Man Says False Entry on Seigenthaler Part of Joke on Co-Worker,” MSNBC, December 12, 2005, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/10439120/ (visited on December 12, 2005).

50Jimmy Wales, “Wikipedia and Defamation: Man Apologizes after Fake Wikipedia Post,” Air-l, December 13, 2005, http://listserv.aoir.org/pipermail/air-l-aoir.org/2005-December/008894.html (accessed December 14, 2005).

51Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Blocking Policy Proposal,” Wikipedia, November 5, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=85910798 (visited on March 16, 2007).

52Katie Hafner, “Growing Wikipedia Refines Its ‘Anyone Can Edit’ Policy,” The New York Times (June 17, 2006), http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/17/technology/17wiki.html?pagewanted=print (visited on May 25, 2007).

53Jimmy Wales, “Re: New York Times Article,” wikien-l, June 20, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=44987D15.2070408@wikia.com (visited on June 20, 2006).

54Hafner, “Growing Wikipedia Refines Its ‘Anyone Can Edit’ Policy”.

55Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Blocking Policy,” Wikipedia, November 26, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=254316018 (visited on November 27, 2008).

56Fl Celloguy, “Re: Blocking Proposal,” wikien-l, October 18, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=BAY114-F237B1A8334738B323C83E4C7710@phx.gbl (accessed October 18, 2005).

57Anthony DiPierro, “Re: Blocking Proposal,” wikien-l, October 19, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=71cd4dd90510191024r4332fe14tbb075711698d60c0@mail.gmail.com (visited on October 19, 2005).

58Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Blocking Policy Proposal (oldid=85910798)”.

59Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody: the Power of Organizing without Organizations (New York: Penguin Press, 2007), 253 (visited on March 26, 2008).

60For a philosophical understanding of the types of values and how they are often in conflict, see Thomas Nagel, “The Fragmentation of Value,” in Mortal Questions (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 128–141. For more recent work on identifying and balancing values in technical design, see Mary Flanagan, Daniel Howe, and Helen Nissenbaum, “Embodying Values in Technology: Theory and Practice”, chapter 16 in Information Technology and Moral Philosophy, ed. Jeroen van den Hoven and John Weckert (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 9, http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/papers/Nissenbaum-VID.4-25.pdf (accessed March 25, 2006).

61Langdon Winner, “Do Artifacts Have Politics?,” in The Whale and the Reactor (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 18–39, http://web.archive.org/web/20051217085219/http://www-personal.si.umich.edu/~rfrost/courses/Women+Tech/readings/Winner.html (visited on February 2, 2005).

62Jimmy Wales, quoted in Hafner, “Growing Wikipedia Refines Its ‘Anyone Can Edit’ Policy”.

63Steve Woolgar, “The Turn to Technology in Social Studies of Science,” Science, Technology, & Human Values 16, number 1 (Winter 1991): 20–50; Batya Friedman and Helen Nissenbaum, “Bias in Computer Systems.,” ACM Transactions in Information Systems 14, number 2 (1996): 330–346; Helen Nissenbaum, “How Computer Systems Embody Values,” Computer 34, number 3 (March 2001): 120–118, http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/papers/embodyvalues.pdf (visited on March 1, 2004).

64Jake Wartenberg and Ragesoss, “Flagged Revisions,” Wikipedia Signpost, January 24, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=266468243 (visited on January 26, 2009); Noam Cohen, “Wikipedia May Restrict Public’s Ability to Change Entries,” NYTimes.com, January 23, 2009, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/01/23/wikipedia-may-restrict-publics-ability-to-change-entries/ (visited on January 26, 2009).

65Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Five Pillars (oldid=308208396)”.

66Wales, “Statement of Principles (oldid=89244123)”.

67Seigenthaler, “A False Wikipedia ‘Biography’”.

68Jimmy Wales, “Re: ‘Should Not Be Written by an Interested Party’,” wikien-l, May 3, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=4458EF10.9060705@wikia.com (visited on May 3, 2006).

69Erik Moeller, “Indefinite Block and Desysopping by User:Danny,” wikien-l, April 19, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=b80736c80604191156y3ba64470vab33c6fb0d513a1d@mail.gmail.com (visited on April 19, 2006).

70Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Oversight,” Wikipedia, July 12, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=301752049 (visited on July 16, 2009).

71Flcelloguy, “Brad Patrick,” Wikipedia Signpost, October 13, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=81267036 (visited on May 25, 2007).

72Larry Sanger, “Why Collaborative Free Works Should Be Protected by the Law”, Slashdot, December 7, 2005, http://slashdot.org/~LarrySanger/journal/123625 (accessed December 7, 2005).

73Jimmy Wales, quoted in Richard Pérez-Peña, “Keeping News of Kidnapping Off Wikipedia,” The New York Times (June 28, 2009), http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/29/technology/internet/29wiki.html (visited on June 28, 2009).

74Anonymous, “David S. Rohde (Difference between Revisions),” Wikipedia, June 20, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=297562979&diff=297567037 (accessed July 16, 2009).

75Max Weber, Economy and Society: an Outline of Interpretive Sociology (1914), ed. Claus Wittich Guenther Roth, volume 1 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), 212-302; Wolfgang J. Mommsen, The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber: Collected Essays (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), 42, http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0226534006.

76Clay Shirky, “Wikis, Grafitti, and Process,” Many-to-Many, August 1, 2003, http://many.corante.com/20030801.shtml#50187 (visited on August 22, 2006).

77Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Practical Process,” Wikipedia, June 24, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=221497230 (visited on July 11, 2008).

78Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Practical Process,” Wikipedia, September 20, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=76785518 (visited on September 20, 2006).

79Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Avoid Instruction Creep,” Wikipedia, March 26, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=118096776 (visited on March 27, 2007); Ivan Beschastnikh, Travis Kriplean, and David W. Mcdonald, “Wikipedian Self-Governance in Action: Motivating the Policy Lens,” in ICWSM 2008: International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (2008), 4, http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/travis/papers/icwsm08_final.pdf (accessed April 8, 2008).

80Andrew Lih, “Unwanted: New Articles in Wikipedia,” August 23, 2007, http://www.andrewlih.com/blog/2007/07/10/unwanted-new-articles-in-wikipedia/ (visited on August 27, 2007).

81Brian Butler, Elisabeth Joyce, and Jacqueline Pike, “Don’t Look Now, but We’ve Created a Bureaucracy: the Nature and Roles of Policies and Rules in Wikipedia,” in CHI ’08: Proceeding of the 26th Annual SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ed. Eytan Adar et al. (Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press, 2008), 8, http://www.katzis.org/wiki/images/7/76/Butleretal2008.pdf (visited on May 20, 2009).

82Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:WikiLawyering,” Wikipedia, March 7, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=113216995 (visited on March 15, 2007); Ryan Mcgrady, “Gaming against the Greater Good,” First Monday 14, number 2 (February 2, 2009), http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2215/2091 (visited on February 27, 2009).

83Phil Sandifer, “I’ve Kicked the Process Habit,” wikien-l, September 16, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=A9F21CA7-852B-4684-AA83-0F759F8DDFBA@gmail.com (visited on September 16, 2006).

84Gary A. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 1st edition (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981), 18.

85For discussion of cabals, see Bryan Pfaffenberger, “If I Want It, It’s Okay: Usenet and the (Outer) Limits of Free Speech,” The Information Society 12, number 4 (1996): 365–386, http://pfaff.sts.virginia.edu/bphome/docs/pdf/usenet.pdf (accessed November 5, 2005); for use of the *dictator* term, see Wikipedia, “Benevolent Dictator for Life,” Wikipedia, May 11, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=289287807 (visited on May 29, 2009).

86Walter van Kalken, “Re: Secret Admin List,” wikipedia-l, May 19, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=446E5989.9070807@vankalken.net (visited on May 19, 2006).

87Sunstein, Why Societies Need Dissent, 158.

88For the announcement, see Angela, “Introducing a New Mailing List,” wikien-l, December 4, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=8b722b800612032144j1711060by4a60db0e8a051460@mail.gmail.com (visited on December 4, 2006); for the description, see WikiChix, WikiChix (WikiChix, January 12, 2007), http://wikichix.org/?oldid=1651 (visited on January 12, 2007).

89Alphax, “Re: Fwd: Request to Mailing List Wikichix-l Rejected,” wikien-l, December 5, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=45758194.7020503@gmail.com (accessed December 5, 2006).

90Guettarda, “Re: Fwd: Request to Mailing List Wikichix-l Rejected,” wikien-l, December 5, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=47683e960612050629t45577488xdf97707a966de6cb@mail.gmail.com (visited on December 5, 2006).

91Yuwei Lin, “Gender Dimensions of FLOSS Development,” Mute Magazine, November 23, 2005, http://www.metamute.org/en/Gender-Dimensions-of-Floss-Development (accessed October 22, 2010).

92Fiona Wilson, “Can Compute, Won’t Compute: Women’s Participation in the Culture of Computing,” New Technology, Work and Employment 18, number 2 (2003): 127–142, http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118880038/abstract (accessed November 15, 2006).

93Bogdan Giusca, “Re: Fwd: Request to Mailing List Wikichix-l Rejected”, wikien-l, December 5, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=281363007.20061205165218@dapyx.com (visited on December 5, 2006).

94Robert Cawdrey, A Table Alphabetical of Hard Usual English Words, ed. Ian Lancashire (1604–1966; Web Development Group University of Toronto Library, 1997), http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/ret/cawdrey/cawdrey0.html (accessed December 4, 2007).

95Stockwell, A History of Information Storage and Retrieval, 111; Tom McArthur, Worlds of Reference: Lexicography, Learning, and Language from the Clay Tablet to the Computer (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 107; a replication of these plates is provided in Herman Kogan, The Great EB: the Story of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1958).

96Wiegand, A Biography of Melvil Dewey.

97Gillian Thomas, A Position to Command Respect: Women and the Eleventh Britannica (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, 1992).

98Oded Nov, “What Motivates Wikipedians?,” Communications of the ACM 50, number 11 (November 2007): 60–64, http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1297798 (visited on July 8, 2009); Glott, Schmidt, and Ghosh, “Wikipedia Survey – First Results”.

99Guettarda, “Re: Fwd: Request to Mailing List Wikichix-l Rejected,” wikien-l, December 5, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=47683e960612050657s6c91283cr8458565ce1a776b6@mail.gmail.com (visited on December 5, 2006).

100Coleman, “Three Ethical Moments in Debian”.

101Jimmy Wales, “Re: Nazi Userboxes,” wikien-l, December 1, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=4570B0FF.6030209@wikia.com (visited on December 1, 2006).

102Wikipedia, “User:The Cunctator,” Wikipedia, May 18, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=290621049 (visited on May 29, 2009).

103Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Do Not Disrupt Wikipedia to Illustrate a Point (oldid=275119939)”.

104Jennifer Vesperman and Deb Richardson, “Frequently Asked Questions”, January 4, 2002, http://www.linuxchix.org/about-linuxchix.html (visited on January 23, 2007).

105Erinn Clark, “Frequently Asked Questions,” Debian Women, 2005, http://women.debian.org/faqs/ (visited on January 23, 2007).

106Ubuntu-Women Project, “Ubuntu Women,” Ubuntu-Women Project, 2006, http://ubuntu-women.org/ (visited on January 23, 2007).

107Webmaster, “KDE Women Homepage - Contact,” KDE, January 23, 2007, http://women.kde.org/contact/ (visited on January 23, 2007).

108Bryan Derksen, “Re: Fwd: Request to Mailing List Wikichix-l Rejected”, wikien-l, December 5, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=4575ABC6.50801@shaw.ca (accessed December 5, 2006).

109Freeman, “The Tyranny of Structurelessness”.

110Sunstein, Why Societies Need Dissent, 158.

111Nancy Fraser, “Rethinking the Public Sphere: a Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy,” chapter 5 in Habermas and the Public Sphere, ed. Craig Calhoun (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992), 123.

112Sunstein, Why Societies Need Dissent, 160-161.

113Clay Shirky, “News of Wikipedia’s Death Greatly Exaggerated,” Many-to-Many, May 25, 2006, http://many.corante.com/archives/2006/05/25/news_of_wikipedias_death_greatly_exaggerated.php (visited on May 25, 2006).

Chapter  5

1Wells, “The Idea of a World Encyclopedia”, 921.

2Wikipedia, “Creation-Evolution Controversy,” Wikipedia, July 27, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=228137973 (visited on August 7, 2008).

3Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Working Group on Ethnic and Cultural Edit Wars”, Wikipedia, January 23, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=186309462 (accessed January 23, 2008).

4On the organization of knowledge, and alphabetization in particular, see Peter Burke, A Social History of Knowledge: from Gutenberg to Diderot (Cambridge, MA: Polity Press, 2000), 109-115; Daniel Headrick, When Information Came of Age (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 154, 162-63, http://books.google.com/books?id=XRBPvOAiQmUC (visited on February 4, 2005); Stockwell, A History of Information Storage and Retrieval, chap. 11.

5The new mode of dealing with information is described by Weinberger, Everything Is Miscellaneous.

6Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Disambiguation,” Wikipedia, July 17, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=226312626 (visited on July 18, 2008).

7Wikipedia, “Buffy,” Wikipedia, July 12, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=225134221 (visited on July 18, 2008).

8Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Consensus,” Wikipedia, June 1, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=293735821 (visited on June 10, 2009).

9Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee,” Wikipedia, July 16, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=225940072 (visited on July 21, 2008).

10For discussion of the extent to which the ArbCom interprets or makes policy see John Lee, “Re: BADSITES ArbCom Case about to Close,” wikien-l, October 17, 2007, http://marc.info/?i=6fb0c9b00710170801p7e54742csd2dd12ebb6c71930@mail.gmail.com (visited on October 17, 2007); Risker, “Re: ArbCom Legislation,” wikien-l, June 18, 2008, http://marc.info/?i=eb45e7c0806180917v5b217175pc469da2ab683a699@mail.gmail.com (visited on June 18, 2008).

11“Evidence” is often densely sourced hyperlinks to various discussions and specific Wikipedia edits; I remove such references (e.g., “[32]”) from excerpts as they serve no purpose here.

12Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Requests for Arbitration/Naming Conventions”, Wikipedia, January 20, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=101952465 (accessed July 16, 2008).


14Wiktionary, “Consensus,” July 11, 2008, http://en.wiktionary.org/?oldid=4617397 (visited on July 11, 2008); Lawrence E. Susskind, “A Short Guide to Consensus Building,” chapter 1 in Consensus Building Handbook, ed. Lawrence E. Susskind, Sarah McKearnen, and Jennifer Thomas-Lamar (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999), 600, http://web.mit.edu/publicdisputes/practice/cbh_ch1.html.

15Wikipedia, “Consensus Decision-Making,” Wikipedia, July 10, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=224735826 (visited on July 11, 2008).

16Sheeran is affirming nine characteristics first articulated by Stuart Chase, Roads to Agreement: How to Get along Better with Other People. (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1951), 51-52; Sheeran, Beyond Majority Rule, 51.

17Andrea Forte and Amy Bruckman, “Scaling Consensus: Increasing Decentralization in Wikipedia Governance,” in Proceedings of the 41st Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society, January 7–10, 2008), 1–10, http://www.cc.gatech.edu/elc/papers/forte/ForteBruckmanScalingConsensus.pdf (visited on August 28, 2008).

18Lawrence E. Susskind, Sarah McKearnen, and Jennifer Thomas-Lamar, Consensus Building Handbook (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999).

19Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web, 62-63.

20A history of the IETF, including its own sometimes troubled relationship with the traditional International Organization for Standardization (ISO) can be found in Andrew L. Russell, “’Rough Consensus and Running Code’ and the Internet-OSI Standards War”, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing (Washington, DC) 28, number 3 (July 2006): 48–61, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/85/35276/01677461.pdf (visited on October 11, 2006); a history of the Web and W3C can be found in Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web.

21Ian Jacobs, “World Wide Web Consortium Process Document,” W3C, October 14, 2005, http://www.w3.org/2005/10/Process-20051014/policies.html#Consensus (accessed October 14, 2005).

22The W3C’s — and Berners-Lee’s — influence is questioned in Simson Garfinkel, “The Web’s Unelected Government,” Technology Review (November 1998), http://www.technologyreview.com/printer_friendly_article.aspx?id=11776 (accessed September 2, 2007). Also, Berners-Lee’s role was challenged when those interested in developing and “monetizing” Web services objected to his “controversial push to develop a type of artificial intelligence called the Semantic Web,” Paul Festa, “Critics Clamor for Web Services Standards,” CNET News.com, July 10, 2002, http://news.cnet.com/2102-1023_3-834990.html (visited on September 2, 2007).

23David D. Clark, “A Cloudy Crystal Ball: Visions of the Future,” IETF, July 1992, http://xys.ccert.edu.cn/reference/future_ietf_92.pdf (visited on March 26, 1999), 19.

24Scott Bradner, “RFC 2418: IETF Working Group Guidelines and Procedures”, IETF, September 1998, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2418 (visited on March 26, 1999).

25Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Consensus,” Wikipedia, July 5, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=223708449 (visited on July 11, 2008).

26Bradner, “RFC 2418”, section 3.3.

27Jacobs, “World Wide Web Consortium Process Document”, section 3.3.

28Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Consensus (oldid=223708449)”.

29Delirium, “Re: Writing Style (Was: a Valid Criticism),” wikien-l, October 7, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=4346DE10.8030902@hackish.org (visited on October 7, 2005).

30Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Consensus (oldid=223708449)”.

31Wikimedia, “Foundation Issues,” Wikimedia, March 26, 2006, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=312949 (visited on April 6, 2006); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Consensus (oldid=223708449)”; for mutability of consensus, see Travis Kriplean et al., “Community, Consensus, Coercion, Control: CS*W or How Policy Mediates Mass Participation,” in GROUP’07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2007 (New York: ACM, November 4–7, 2007), 173, http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1316648 (visited on December 13, 2007).

32Tim Berners-Lee, “Hypertext Style: Cool URIs Don’t Change.,” W3C, 1998, http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI (visited on July 31, 2008).

33Rowan Collins, “Re: Multilingual Redirect,” Wikipedia-l, October 21, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=9f02ca4c0510211419u6e4f9d04m@mail.gmail.com (accessed October 21, 2005).

34Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Consensus,” Wikipedia, August 23, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=153141886 (visited on July 16, 2008).

35Philip Sandifer, “Reflections on the End of the Spoiler Wars,” wikien-l, November 14, 2007, http://marc.info/?i=9D7A631E-A3E7-4083-A91C-E3BB9C848704@gmail.com (visited on November 14, 2007).

36Bradner, “RFC 2418”, section 3.3.


38Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Consensus (oldid=223708449)”.

39Gerard Meijssen, “Re: New Request for Cantonese Wikipedia: Vote at 29-6”, Wikipedia-l, September 25, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=43370ACD.3030301@gmail.com (visited on September 25, 2005).

40Jane J. Mansbridge, Beyond Adversary Democracy (New York: Basic Books, 1980), 32, http://books.google.com/books?id=g-AmoP-nW1gC (visited on October 25, 2005).

41Bradner, “RFC 2418”, section 3.3.

42Wikipedia, “User:Raul654/Raul’s Laws (oldid=301373968)”.

43Sheeran, Beyond Majority Rule, 92-98.

44Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Requests for Arbitration/Naming Conventions (oldid=101952465)”.


46My selective portrayal of this case should not be construed as representative of the case or the participants.

47Wikipedia, “Wikipedia Talk:Requests for Arbitration/Naming Conventions”, Wikipedia, February 12, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=107562939 (accessed July 16, 2008).

48Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Requests for Arbitration/Naming Conventions (oldid=101952465)”.

49Wikipedia, “Wikipedia Talk:Requests for Arbitration/Naming Conventions (oldid=107562939)”.

50Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Voting Is Evil,” Wikipedia, August 6, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=149531708 (visited on November 1, 2007). Voting is supposed to be exceptional enough that Wikipedians keep a tally of the number of times a hundred people or more — now two hundred — have voted on something, as seen in Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Times That 100 Wikipedians Supported Something,” Wikipedia, May 29, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=292998287 (visited on May 29, 2009).

51Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Straw Polls,” Wikipedia, May 23, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=214504581 (visited on October 3, 2008).

52Wikimedia, “Don’t Vote on Everything,” Wikimedia, 2007, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=646278 (visited on November 1, 2007).

53Wikimedia, “Polls Are Evil,” Wikimedia, 2007, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=656194 (visited on November 1, 2007); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Polling Is Not a Substitute for Discussion,” Wikipedia, September 10, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=237594693 (visited on October 3, 2008).

54Mansbridge, Beyond Adversary Democracy, 175.

55Meatball, “VotingIsGood,” January 27, 2005, http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?VotingIsGood (visited on July 11, 2008). Meatball still uses the historic “CamelCase” wiki method of linking to other pages by concatenating the capitalized words of the article name.

56Clay Shirky, “A Group Is Its Own Worst Enemy,” Keynote at O’Reilly Emerging Technology Conference, shirky.com, April 24, 2003, http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_enemy.html (visited on June 27, 2007), 14.

57Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (Boston, MA: Little Brown, 2000), 181.

58Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Consensus (oldid=223708449)”.

59Sunstein, Why Societies Need Dissent, 59.

60Meatball, “VotingIsEvil,” November 16, 2007, http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?VotingIsEvil (visited on July 11, 2008).

61Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Sock Puppetry,” Wikipedia, March 5, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=275114814 (visited on March 6, 2009).

62Ben McIlwain, “We Need a Policy against Vote-Stacking,” wikien-l, May 4, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=44594B8C.1030001@gmail.com (visited on May 4, 2006); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Articles for Deletion (oldid=128043238)”; Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Requests for Adminship,” Wikipedia, August 6, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=230207377 (visited on August 6, 2008).

63Danny Wool, “[Foundation-l] Breaking Promises (Was Re: Where We Are Headed),” Foundation-l, June 5, 2006, http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/foundation-l/2006-June/020815.html (accessed August 8, 2006).

64Mansbridge, Beyond Adversary Democracy, 10.

65Ryan Paul, “XML Spec Editor: OOXML ISO Process Is ‘Unadulterated BS’,” March 2, 2008, http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20080302-xml-spec-editor-ooxml-iso-process-is-unadulterated-bs.html (visited on August 6, 2008).

66Edward Macnaghten, “ODF/OOXML Technical White Paper,” May 2, 2007, http://www.freesoftwaremagazine.com/articles/odf_ooxml_technical_white_paper (visited on August 6, 2008).

67Scott M. Fulton III, “Evidence of Microsoft Influencing OOXML Votes in Nordic States”, BetaNews, August 28, 2007, http://www.betanews.com/article/Evidence_of_Microsoft_Influencing_OOXML_Votes_in_Nordic_States/1188335569 (visited on August 6, 2008).

68Martin Bryan, “Report on WG1 Activity for December 2007 Meeting of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34/WG1 in Kyoto,” November 29, 2007, http://www.jtc1sc34.org/repository/0940.htm (visited on August 5, 2008).

69I discuss similar arguments over trading votes and advocacy that took place in the KDE development community when their bug tracking system adopted a feature allowing users to vote for their most pressing bugs in Joseph Reagle, “Bug Tracking Systems as Public Spheres,” Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 11, number 1 (Fall 2007), http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/SPT/v11n1/pdf/reagle.pdf.

70John Tex, “We Need to Recognize That Advocating Is a Basic Right,” wikien-l, May 4, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=eeec757b0605040857m212c5258l8165c43f970228ab@mail.gmail.com (visited on May 4, 2006).

71Tony Sidaway, “Re: We Need to Recognize That Advocating Is a Basic Right,” wikien-l, May 5, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=605709b90605050526g75eb04b4o17ebdba61acf3899@mail.gmail.com (visited on May 5, 2006).

72Zoney, “Re: ‘Consensus’ and Decision Making on Wikipedia,” wikien-l, June 29, 2007, http://marc.info/?l=wikien-l&m=118311257100564&w=2 (visited on June 29, 2007).

73Tony Sidaway, “Re: ‘Consensus’ and Decision Making on Wikipedia,” wikien-l, June 29, 2007, http://marc.info/?l=wikien-l&m=118312000423989&w=2 (accessed June 29, 2007).

74Tony Sidaway, “Re: ‘Consensus’and Decision Making on Wikipedia,” wikien-l, June 27, 2007, http://marc.info/?l=wikien-l&m=118292148913045&w=2 (accessed June 27, 2007).

75Adrian, “Re: ‘Consensus’ and Decision Making on Wikipedia,” wikien-l, June 26, 2007, http://marc.info/?i=46818E71.2050000@googlemail.com (accessed June 26, 2007).

76Marc Riddell, “Re: ‘Consensus’ and Decision Making on Wikipedia,” wikien-l, June 26, 2007, http://marc.info/?i=C2A70AEC.5E08%michaeldavid86@comcast.net (visited on June 26, 2007).

77Bibliomaniac15, “How Many Wikipedians Does It Take to Screw in a Lightbulb?,” Wikipedia, July 11, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=301565313 (visited on August 20, 2009); Lise Broer, “How Many Wikipedians Does It Take to Change a Light Bulb?,” Durova, August 24, 2008, http://durova.blogspot.com/2008/08/how-many-wikipedians-does-it-take-to.html (visited on August 20, 2009).

78Wikipedia, “User:Malleus Fatuorum/WikiSpeak (oldid=224745874)”.

Chapter  6

1Amitai Etzioni, Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations (New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1975).

2Jimmy Wales, “Re: Neo-Nazis to Attack Wikipedia,” wikien-l, February 7, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=20050207162911.GO29080@wikia.com (visited on February 7, 2005).

3Joseph Reagle, “Do as I Do: Authorial Leadership in Wikipedia,” in WikiSym ’07: Proceedings of the 2007 International Symposium on Wikis (New York: ACM Press, 2007), http://reagle.org/joseph/2007/10/Wikipedia-Authorial-Leadership.pdf (accessed December 20, 2007); a similar model to the “authorial” model of leadership is offered by Mathieu O’Neil, Cyberchiefs: Autonomy and Authority in Online Tribes (New York: Pluto Press, 2009).

4For emergent leadership, see Bernard M. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications, 3rd edition (New York: Free Press, 1990), 126-127. For characteristics of emergent leadership in the online context, see Gianluca Bosco, “Implicit Theories of ‘Good Leadership’ in the Open-Source Community” (Master’s thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 2004), http://opensource.mit.edu/papers/bosco.pdf (visited on January 13, 2006); Youngjin Yoo and Maryam Alavi, “Emergent Leadership in Virtual Teams: What Do Emergent Leaders Do?,” Information and Organization 14, number 1 (January 2004): 27–58, http://www.springerlink.com/content/d6851r0817386065/ (visited on June 28, 2007). The role of technical contributions in such communities is discussed by David Waguespack and Lee Fleming, “Penguins, Camels, and Other Birds of a Feather: Brokerage, Boundary Spanning, and Leadership in Open Innovation Communities,” April 8, 2005, http://opensource.mit.edu/papers/flemingwaguespack.pdf (visited on January 13, 2006).

5For the mixing of governance models in software development, see O’Neil, Cyberchiefs; Coleman, “Three Ethical Moments in Debian”; Siobhan O’Mahony and Fabrizio Ferraro, “Governance in Production Communities,” April 2007, http://www.business.ualberta.ca/tcc/documents/TII_3_OMahoney_Ferraro_final.pdf (visited on June 15, 2007). Similarly, the larger Internet culture, a “set of values and beliefs informing behavior,” is argued by to be constituted by techno-meritocratic, hacker, virtual communitarian, and entrepreneurial values by Manuel Castells, The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business, and Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 36-37. Theories of governance are compared in the Wikipedia context in Christopher Goldspink, “Social Self-Regulation in Computer Mediated Communities: the Case of Wikipedia,” International Journal of Agent Technologies and Systems 1, number 1 (2009): 19–33, http://lifeandmind.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/5.pdf (visited on April 24, 2009).

6Jimmy Wales, "From Jimbo Wales’ user talk page," quoted in Wikimedia, “Meta:Talk:Benevolent Dictator,” Wikimedia, March 16, 2007, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=544462 (visited on May 21, 2008).

7"Charismatic authority" is seminally discussed by Weber, Economy and Society, 215; in the online context, see Giampaolo Garzarelli and Roberto Galoppini, “Capability Coordination in Modular Organization: Voluntary FS/OSS Production and the Case of Debian GNU/Linux,” in Economics Working Paper Archive at WUST, 0312005 (Industrial Organization, 2003), 18, http://opensource.mit.edu/papers/garzarelligaloppini.pdf (visited on September 3, 2004); O’Neil, Cyberchiefs, 18.

8Eric Raymond, “Homesteading the Noosphere,” First Monday 3, number 10 (1998): 15, http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue3_10/raymond/index.html (accessed December 13, 2004).

9Raymond, “Homesteading the Noosphere”; Wikipedia, “Benevolent Dictator for Life (oldid=289287807)”.

10Edwin P. Hollander, “Competence and Conformity in the Acceptance of Influence,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 61, number 3 (1960): 365–369, http://content2.apa.org/journals/abn/61/3/365; Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 29; Raymond, “Homesteading the Noosphere”, 15.

11Meatball, “GodKing,” Meatball Wiki, November 2, 2007, http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?GodKing (visited on November 2, 2007).

12Wheeler, “Why Open Source Software/Free Software (OSS/FS)? Look at the Numbers!”

13For examples of similar anxiety and humor about leadership, see Pfaffenberger, “If I Want It, It’s Okay”; Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Mediation Cabal,” Wikipedia, February 16, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=271167724 (visited on May 29, 2009), 379.

14Edgar H. Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd edition (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1992), 231.

15Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia”.

16Jimmy Wales as quoted in Marshall Poe, “The Hive: Can Thousands of Wikipedians Be Wrong? How an Attempt to Build an Online Encyclopedia Touched off History’s Biggest Experiment in Collaborative Knowledge,” The Atlantic Monthly (September 2006): 2, http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/print/200609/wikipedia (accessed August 14, 2006).

17Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia”.

18Anthere, “Re: Sanger’s Memoirs,” wikipedia-l, April 23, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=4269F0E4.8080501@yahoo.com (visited on April 23, 2005).

19Evan Prodromou, “Your Paper and Presentation at WikiSym,” email message to author, October 23, 2007, doi:1193147885.6121.35.camel@bear.

20Schiff, “Know It All”, 3; Jimmy Wales, “Citing Material from the Web?,” nupedia-l, October 10, 2000, http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-October/000617.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

21Steve Bennett, “[OT] Jimbo Wales’ Edit Count (Was: Re: Here’s an,” wikien-l, February 1, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=f1c3529e0602011213peed6b47idd8aa61c56053fd2@mail.gmail.com (visited on February 1, 2006).

22For example, between June and September 2008 Wales did not post to wikiEN-l MARC, “Viewing Messages Posted by ‘Jimmy Wales’,” MARC, May 23, 2008, http://marc.info/?a=111340136500001&r=1&w=2 (visited on October 3, 2008); his edits can be seen at Wikipedia, “Jimbo Wales User Contributions,” Wikipedia, May 23, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/Jimbo_Wales (visited on October 3, 2008).

23Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 231.

24Jimmy Wales, “Re: Do We NEED an Article on Feminism for the One on Masculism?”, nupedia-l, September 15, 2000, http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-September/000572.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

25Wales, “Re: A Neo-Nazi Wikipedia”.

26Jimmy Wales, “Re: Cruft,” wikien-l, September 11, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=43244CE3.1060905@wikia.com (visited on September 11, 2005).

27Jimbo Wales, “User Talk:Jimbo Wales,” March 3, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=112270687 (visited on March 3, 2007).

28Jimmy Wales, “Re: Just What *Is* Jimbo’s Role Anyway?,” wikien-l, March 21, 2007, http://marc.info/?i=4600EC9C.3020909@wikia.com (visited on March 21, 2007).

29Jimmy Wales, “Wikimania 2007 Interview with Joseph Reagle” (August 3, 2007).

30Jimmy Wales, “Re: Ant: Serbo-Croatian Wikipedia - a Policy Question?”, wikipedia-l, October 16, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=43524BFD.9000501@wikia.com (visited on October 16, 2005).

31Jimmy Wales, “Re: Request for New Wikipedia: Friulian,” wikipedia-l, November 4, 2004, http://marc.info/?i=20041104204518.GE24033@wikia.com (visited on November 4, 2004).

32Jimmy Wales, “Re: Status of Wikimedia,” wikipedia-l, November 7, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=436FDD60.1060301@wikia.com (visited on November 7, 2005).

33Jimmy Wales, “Re: Re: Static HTML Dumps,” wikipedia-l, October 18, 2005, http://marc.info/?l=wikipedia-l&m=112961483513485&w=2 (visited on October 18, 2005).

34Mark Williamson, “Re: Wikimedia Foundation Internal Radio System”, wikipedia-l, April 12, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=849f98ed050412011473cf4b91@mail.gmail.com (visited on April 12, 2005).

35Some of the more extreme message boards have come to popular attention through media coverage of "cyberbullying," see Mattathias Schwartz, “Malwebolence - The World of Web Trolling,” NYTimes.com, August 3, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/03/magazine/03trolls-t.html (visited on August 14, 2008).

36Jimmy Wales, “Wikimedia Board Elections,” wikipedia-l, September 16, 2006, http://marc.info/?l=wikipedia-l&m=115839007632183&w=2 (visited on September 16, 2006); Wikimedia Foundation, “Wikimedia Foundation Announces Board Elections”, Wikimedia, June 27, 2007, http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Board_Elections_2007 (visited on June 27, 2007).

37Wartenberg and Ragesoss, “Flagged Revisions (oldid=266468243)”; Cohen, “Wikipedia May Restrict Public’s Ability to Change Entries”; Jimmy Wales, “User Talk:Jimbo Wales,” Wikipedia, January 22, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=266489946 (visited on January 26, 2009).

38Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Administrators,” March 23, 2005, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=11508036 (visited on May 4, 2007).

39Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Practical Process (oldid=221497230)”; Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Lists of Protected Pages,” Wikipedia, June 30, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=222655315 (visited on October 2, 2008).

40Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Administrators (oldid=11508036)”.

41Wikipedia, “Wheel (Unix Term),” Wikipedia, September 13, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=238091451 (visited on September 30, 2008).

42Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Administrators,” Wikipedia, October 2, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=242442563 (visited on October 2, 2008).

43Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:List of Administrators (oldid=307325114)”; Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Bureaucrats,” Wikipedia, July 16, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=302392524 (visited on July 17, 2009).

44Wikimedia, “Stewards,” Wikimedia, July 9, 2009, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=1547805 (visited on July 17, 2009).

45The structure and character of Wikipedia governance is further explored by Forte and Bruckman, “Scaling Consensus”.

46Wikipedia, “Wikimedia Foundation,” Wikipedia, July 14, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=302106222 (visited on July 17, 2009).

47Erik Moeller, “Rename Admins to Janitors,” wikien-l, March 6, 2007, http://marc.info/?i=b80736c80703060517k56dfabadg2e9f9bf3720cb3a9@mail.gmail.com (visited on March 6, 2007).

48Wikimedia, “Stewards,” Wikimedia, November 2, 2007, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=733931 (visited on November 2, 2007).

49Wikimedia, “Steward Policies (oldid=724037)”.

50Wikimedia Foundation, “Board of Trustees/Restructure Announcement”, Wikimedia Foundation, April 26, 2008, http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Board_of_Trustees/Restructure_Announcement (visited on June 11, 2009).

51Wikimedia Foundation, “Board of Trustees,” October 13, 2005, http://wikimediafoundation.org/?oldid=10702 (visited on August 26, 2008).

52Erik Moeller, “RK Temp-Banned,” wikien-l, October 2, 2003, http://marc.info/?l=wikien-l&m=106513613512602&w=2 (visited on April 16, 2009); Jimmy Wales, “Wikiquette ‘Committee’,” wikien-l, October 2, 2003, http://marc.info/?l=wikien-l&m=106513629912729&w=2 (visited on April 16, 2009); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Arbitration Committee (oldid=225940072)”.

53Wikipedia, “User:Raul654/Raul’s Laws (oldid=301373968)”.

54Wikimedia, “Polls Are Evil (oldid=656194)”.

55Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Deletion Guidelines for Administrators,” Wikipedia, July 4, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=223498575 (visited on October 3, 2008).

56Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:New Admin School,” Wikipedia, June 20, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=220558698 (visited on July 31, 2008); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Admin Coaching,” Wikipedia, July 24, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=227653331 (visited on July 31, 2008).

57Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Advice for New Administrators,” Wikipedia, June 10, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=218417159 (visited on August 8, 2008).

58Pfaffenberger, “If I Want It, It’s Okay”; Coleman, “Three Ethical Moments in Debian”.

59Raymond, “Homesteading the Noosphere”, 11.

60For the earliest instance I could find in computer communities see Steve Dyer, “Re on the Direction of Net.Motss,” net.motss, October 2, 1984, http://groups.google.com/group/net.motss/msg/216bcdcffc0aadfe (visited on May 2, 2007); for application to Torvalds, see Russell Nelson, “Patchlevel 6,” comp.os.linux, September 22, 1992, http://groups.google.com/group/comp.os.linux/msg/1a0a82ff3c662036 (visited on May 2, 2007); Charles Hedrick, “386Bsd Vs Linux,” comp.os.linux, October 3, 1992, http://groups.google.com/group/comp.os.linux/msg/cebaafdf43eebec7 (visited on May 2, 2007).

61NSK, “Re: Flags,” wikipedia-l, January 10, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=200501101748.06696.nsk2@wikinerds.org (visited on January 10, 2005).

62Fogel, “Producing Open Source Software”, 48.

63Geoff Cohen, quoted in Shirky, “A Group Is Its Own Worst Enemy”, 5.

64SlimVirgin, “Re: Original Research versus Point of View,” wikien-l, January 18, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=4cc603b0501181558569cb84f@mail.gmail.com (accessed January 18, 2005).

65James D. Forrester, “Re: Your Golorous [Sic] Leader.,” wikien-l, April 8, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=200504081652.j38GqMtd009896@mail-relay-2.csv.warwick.ac.uk (visited on April 8, 2005).

66Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 144.

67Anthere, “Re: NYTimes.Com: Google May Host Encyclopedia Project”, wikipedia-l, February 14, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=4211339B.6030803@yahoo.com (visited on February 14, 2005).

68Wikipedia, “Talk:Titanic (1997 Film)/Archive 1,” Wikipedia, December 13, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=177757001 (visited on September 30, 2008).

69Erik Moeller, “Re: [[Talk:Autofellatio]] - Poll,” wikien-l, February 13, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=420F062F.50805@gmx.de (visited on February 13, 2005).

70Wales, “Re: Neo-Nazis to Attack Wikipedia”.

71Jimmy Wales, “Re: Re: A Neo-Nazi Wikipedia,” wikien-l, August 27, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=4310D2CB.1060401@wikia.com (visited on August 27, 2005).

72Jimmy Wales as quoted in Wikimedia, “Meta:Talk:Benevolent Dictator (oldid=544462)”.

73As such, Wales’s hybrid leadership style might fit within the "situational school" which advocates different leadership performances as merited by the particular context, see Victor H. Vroom and Philip W. Yetton, Leadership and Decision-Making (Pittsburgh: University Of Pittsburgh Press, 1973).

74Garzarelli and Galoppini, “Capability Coordination in Modular Organization”, 36; also see Ostrom, “Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms”, 149.

75Jimmy Wales, “Where We Are Headed,” Foundation-l, June 4, 2006, http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/foundation-l/2006-June/007451.html (accessed August 6, 2008).

76Ray Saintonge, “Re: Wikimedia Foundation Internal Radio,” wikipedia-l, April 12, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=425C3FB4.2070401@telus.net (visited on April 12, 2005).

77Jimmy Wales, “Re: Harassment Sites,” wikien-l, October 24, 2007, http://marc.info/?i=471F6053.4040806@wikia.com (visited on October 24, 2007); Another instance in which Wales is forced to disclaim authority in a message is Jimmy Wales, “Re: Fancruft,” wikien-l, July 22, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=44C17378.9030902@wikia.com (visited on July 22, 2006).

78Jimmy Wales, “Re: Process Wonkery,” wikien-l, September 28, 2006, http://marc.info/?i=451BC6B8.8040201@wikia.com (visited on September 28, 2006).

79Wikimedia, “Benevolent Dictator,” Wikimedia, February 2, 2009, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=1371439 (visited on May 29, 2009).

80Rick, “Re: Re: Writing about Sexual Topics Responsibly Is Not,” wikien-l, February 14, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=20050214062541.66792.qmail@web60609.mail.yahoo.com (visited on February 14, 2005).

Chapter  7

1Michael Gorman, “Jabberwiki: the Educational Response, Part II,” Britannica Blog: Web 2.0 Forum, June 26, 2007, http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2007/06/jabberwiki-the-educational-response-part-ii/ (visited on June 27, 2007), 5.

2Wikipedia, “User:Raul654/Raul’s Laws (oldid=301373968)”.

3Headrick, When Information Came of Age, 145.

4Henry Hitchens, Defining the World: the Extraordinary Story of Dr. Johnson’s Dictionary (New York: Farrar, Straus, / Giroux, 2005), 73.

5For Johnson’s original pretense of “fixing” English, see Samuel Johnson, “The Plan of an English Dictionary,” in Oxford Works, ed. Jack Lynch (1747–1825, February 2, 2007), http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/plan.html (visited on December 4, 2007). Johnson’s subsequent apology can be seen in Samuel Johnson, “Preface,” in A Dictionary of the English Language, ed. Jack Lynch (1755; London, September 2006), Line 84, http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/preface.html (accessed December 4, 2007). To review the claims of other lexicographers (i.e., Richard Trench, Ephraim Chambers, and Noah Webster) that their task as was to be descriptive historians rather than judgmental critics, see Morton, The Story of Webster’s Third, 7; Hitchens, Defining the World, 151; Noah Webster, “To John Pickering, December, 1816,” in Letters of Noah Webster, ed. Harry R. Warfel (New York: Library Publishers, 1953), 357.

6David Foster Wallace, “Tense Present: Democracy, English, and the Wars over Usage,” Harper’s Magazine (April 2001), http://instruct.westvalley.edu/lafave/DFW_present_tense.html (visited on March 4, 2008).

7Wikimedia, “Conflicting Wikipedia Philosophies”.

8Stockwell, A History of Information Storage and Retrieval, 133-134; also, see Einbinder, The Myth of the Britannica, 323-325.

9Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Simple English Wikipedia,” Wikipedia, October 11, 2008, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=244640674 (visited on November 14, 2008).

10Anonymous et al., “How to Writer’s Guide,” wikiHow, August 21, 2007, http://www.wikihow.com/Writer’s-Guide (visited on August 21, 2007).

11Morton, The Story of Webster’s Third.

12Wilson Follett, “Sabotage in Springfield: Webster’s Third Edition,” The Atlantic Monthly (January 1962): 74.

13Jacques Barzun, “The Scholar Cornered: What Is the Dictionary?,” The American Scholar (Spring 1963): 176.

14Sheridan Baker, “The Error of Ain’t,” College English 26, number 2 (November 1964): 91–104, http://www.jstor.org/stable/373658 (visited on May 23, 2008); Virginia McDavid, “More on Ain’t,” College English 26, number 2 (November 1964): 104–105, http://www.jstor.org/stable/373659 (visited on May 23, 2008).

15Morton, The Story of Webster’s Third, 116, 168, 162.

16Conservapedia, “Main Page,” Conservapedia, July 3, 2008, http://www.conservapedia.com/?oldid=486410 (visited on October 24, 2008).

17Conservapedia, “Examples of Bias in Wikipedia,” Conservapedia, June 2, 2009, http://www.conservapedia.com/?oldid=669839 (visited on June 15, 2009).

18Lester Haines, “Conservapedia Too Pinko? Try Metapedia,” The Register, July 23, 2007, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/07/23/metapedia/ (accessed October 24, 2008).

19Metapedia, “Mission Statement,” Metapedia, September 2, 2008, http://en.metapedia.org/?oldid=33062 (visited on October 24, 2008).

20McArthur, Worlds of Reference, 67.

21Johann Heinrich Zedler, *Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste*, welche bisshero durch menschlichen Verstand und Witz erfunded und verbessert warden, 64 vols. (Halle and Leipzig: Zedler, 1732-1750); 4-volume supplement (Leipzig: Zedler, 1751-1754), quoted in Headrick, When Information Came of Age, 155.

22Diderot, “The Encyclopedia”, 295.

23George Gleig, in the preface to the supplement of the third edition as quoted in Britannica, “Encyclopaedia,” in Encyclopedia Britannica, volume 15 (1911), 943, http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Encyclopaedia (visited on November 30, 2007).

24Jimmy Wales, quoting Charles Van Doren, in Schiff, “Know It All”, 3.

25Wikipedia, “Charles Van Doren,” Wikipedia, September 19, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=158910101 (visited on September 21, 2007).

26Kogan, The Great EB.

27Einbinder, The Myth of the Britannica.

28Thaddeus K. Oglesby, Some Truths of History: a Vindication of the South against the Encyclopedia Britannica and Other Maligners (Atlanta: The Byrd Printing Company, 1903), http://books.google.com/books?id=pdx3tYFQ2PYC (visited on September 28, 2007).

29Thomas, A Position to Command Respect; Britannica, “Ku Klux Klan,” in Encyclopedia Britannica, volume 17 (1911), 5, http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Ku_Klux_Klan (visited on November 30, 2007); Britannica, “Lynch Law,” in Encyclopedia Britannica, volume 15 (1911), 5, http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Lynch_Law (visited on November 30, 2007).

30Michael McCarthy, “It’s Not True about Caligula’s Horse; Britannica Checked — Dogged Researchers Answer Some Remarkable Queries,” Wall Street Journal (April 22, 1999): A1.

31Joseph McCabe, The Lies and Fallacies of the Encyclopaedia Britannica: How Powerful and Shameless Clerical Forces Castrated a Famous Work of Reference (Girard, KA: Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1947), http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/joseph_mccabe/lies_of_britannica.html (visited on April 7, 2006).

32Joseph McCabe, The Columbia Encyclopedia’s Crimes against the Truth (Girard, KA: Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1951), http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/joseph_mccabe/encyclopedia_crime.html (visited on April 7, 2006).

33Wikipedia, “WikiScanner,” Wikipedia, September 6, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=156029747 (visited on September 7, 2007).

34Robert Darnton, The Business of Enlightenment: a Publishing History of the Encyclopédie (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1979), 9-13.

35Stockwell, A History of Information Storage and Retrieval, 90.

36Ibidem, 89.

37Cynthia Koepp, “Making Money: Artisans and Entrepreneurs and Diderot’s Encyclope’Die,” in Using the Encyclopédie, ed. Julie Candler Hayes Daniel Brewer (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2002), 138.

38Einbinder, The Myth of the Britannica, 3.

39Shirky, Here Comes Everybody, 297.

40Wikipedia, “Criticism of Wikipedia,” Wikipedia, March 27, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=118252212 (visited on March 27, 2007).

41Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Replies to Common Objections,” Wikipedia, September 20, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=159141692 (accessed September 27, 2007).

42Tim O’Reilly, “Web 2.0 Compact Definition: Trying Again,” December 10, 2006, http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2006/12/web-20-compact.html (accessed August 28, 2007); see Paul Graham, “Web 2.0,” November 2005, http://paulgraham.com/web20.html (visited on September 21, 2007); Alex Krupp, “The Four Webs: Web 2.0, Digital Identity, and the Future of Human Interaction,” 2006, http://www.alexkrupp.com/fourwebs.html (visited on September 21, 2007).

43Robert McHenry, “Web 2.0: Hope or Hype?,” Britannica Blog: Web 2.0 Forum, June 25, 2007, http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2007/06/web-20-hope-or-hype/ (visited on June 27, 2007).

44Shirky, Here Comes Everybody.

45My understanding is a variation of and response to the "One Smart Guy," "One Best Way," and "One for All" periodization offered by Pink, “The Book Stops Here”.

46Joseph Reagle, Four Short Stories about the Reference Work, 2005; Marc Elliott, “Stigmergic Collaboration: the Evolution of Group Work,” M/C Journal 9, number 2 (May 2006), http://journal.media-culture.org.au/0605/03-elliott.php (visited on June 5, 2006).

47Kevin Kelly, Out of Control: the New Biology of Machines, Social Systems and the Economic World, Reprint edition (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books Group, 1995), http://www.kk.org/outofcontrol/ (visited on April 13, 2004).

48Howard Rheingold, Smart Mobs (Cambridge, MA: Perseuss Publishing, 2002).

49James Surowiecki, The Wisdom of Crowds (New York: Doubleday, 2004).

50Michael Gorman, “Jabberwiki: the Educational Response, Part I,” Britannica Blog: Web 2.0 Forum, June 25, 2007, http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2007/06/jabberwiki-the-educational-response-part-i/ (visited on June 27, 2007), 4.

51Michael Gorman, “Web 2.0: the Sleep of Reason, Part II,” June 12, 2007, http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2007/06/web-20-the-sleep-of-reason-part-ii/ (accessed June 15, 2007).

52Jaron Lanier, “Digital Maoism: the Hazards of the New Online Collectivism”, Edge, May 30, 2006, http://www.edge.org/documents/archive/edge183.html (accessed June 7, 2006).

53Andrew Keen, The Cult of the Amateur: How Today’s Internet Is Killing Our Culture (New York: Doubleday, 2007), 4.

54Mark Helprin, Digital Barbarism: a Writer’s Manifesto (Harper, April 2009), 41, 18.

55Lawrence Lessig, “The Solipsist and the Internet (a Review of Helprin’s Digital Barbarism),” The Huffington Post, June 15, 2009, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/lawrence-lessig/the-solipsist-and-the-int_b_206021.html (visited on June 15, 2009).

56Alex Krupp, “Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds,” wikipedia-l, May 2, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=4275D17C.6090501@gmail.com (visited on May 2, 2005).

57Jimmy Wales, “Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds”, wikipedia-l, May 2, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=427622EC.8010005@wikia.com (visited on May 2, 2005).

58Sj, “Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds,” wikipedia-l, May 3, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=742dfd06050503151938d6ec8f@mail.gmail.com (visited on May 3, 2005).

59Joseph Reagle, “Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds”, wikipedia-l, May 2, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=200505021101.11598.reagle@mit.edu (visited on May 2, 2005).

60Benkler, “Coase’s Penguin, or, Linux and the Nature of the Firm”; Sproull, “Online Communities”.

61Cunningham, “Keynote”.

62Chris Anderson, The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less for More (New York: Hyperion, 2006), http://books.google.com/books?id=O2k0K1w_bJIC (visited on September 13, 2007); Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (New York: Portfolio, 2006).

63Jimmy Wales, “Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds”, wikipedia-l, May 3, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=4277C476.3040803@wikia.com (accessed May 3, 2005).

64Joseph Reagle, “Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds”, wikipedia-l, May 4, 2005, http://marc.info/?i=200505040924.52194.reagle@mit.edu (visited on May 4, 2005).

65Poe, “The Hive”.

66Helprin, Digital Barbarism, 65-66.

67Lanier, “Digital Maoism”.

68Jimmy Wales, “On ‘Digital Maoism’,” Edge, May 30, 2006, http://www.edge.org/discourse/digital_maoism.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

69Yochai Benkler, “On ‘Digital Maoism’,” Edge, May 30, 2006, http://www.edge.org/discourse/digital_maoism.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

70Clay Shirky, “Old Revolutions Good, New Revolutions Bad: a Response to Gorman”, Many-to-Many, June 13, 2007, http://many.corante.com/archives/2007/06/13/old_revolutions_good_new_revolutions_bad_a_response_to_gorman.php (visited on June 15, 2007), 3.

71Matthew Battles, “Authority of a New Kind,” Britannica Blog: Web 2.0 Forum, June 13, 2007, http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2007/06/authority-of-a-new-kind/ (visited on June 27, 2007).

72Gorman, “Web 2.0”, 2.

73Stallman, “The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Learning Resource”.

74Steven Levy, “The Trend Spotter,” Wired 13, number 10 (October 2005), http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.10/oreilly_pr.html (visited on October 20, 2008); Nick Carr, “The Amorality of Web 2.0,” Rough Type, October 3, 2005, http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2005/10/the_amorality_o.php (visited on October 20, 2005).

75Michael Gorman, “The Siren Song of the Internet: Part II,” Britannica Blog, June 19, 2007, http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2007/06/the-siren-song-of-the-internet-part-ii/ (visited on June 29, 2007).

76Thomas Mann, “Brave New (Digital) World, Part II: Foolishness 2.0?,” Britannica Blog: Web 2.0 Forum, June 27, 2007, http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2007/06/brave-new-digital-world-part-ii-foolishness-20/ (visited on June 27, 2007).

77Adrian Johns, “The Birth of Scientific Reading,” Nature 409, number 287 (January 18, 2001): 633, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v409/n6818/full/409287a0.html (accessed August 22, 2007).

78Glenn Reynolds, An Army of Davids: How Markets and Technology Empower Ordinary People to Beat Big Media, Big Government, and Other Goliaths (Nashville: Nelson Current, 2006).

79Anderson, The Long Tail.

80Battles, “Authority of a New Kind”.

81Shirky, “Old Revolutions Good, New Revolutions Bad”.

82Battles, “Authority of a New Kind”, 2.

83danah boyd, “Knowledge Access as a Public Good,” Britannica Blog: Web 2.0 Forum, June 27, 2007, http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2007/06/knowledge-access-as-a-public-good/ (visited on June 27, 2007).

84danah boyd, “Wikipedia, Academia and Seigenthaler,” Many-to-Many, December 17, 2005, http://many.corante.com/archives/2005/12/17/wikipedia_academia_and_seigenthaler.php (visited on December 17, 2005).

85Burke, A Social History of Knowledge.

86On communism, see Andrew Keen, “Web 2.0: The Second Generation of the Internet Has Arrived. It’s Worse Than You Think.,” The Weekly Standard (February 15, 2006), http://www.weeklystandard.com/Utilities/printer_preview.asp?idArticle=6714&R=1150324B1D (visited on September 15, 2007); on socialism, see Richard Stallman, “Bill Gates and Other Communists,” CNET News.com, February 15, 2005, http://news.cnet.com/Bill-Gates-and-other-communists/2010-1071_3-5576230.html (visited on September 15, 2007); Richard Stallman, “Pigdog Interviews Richard Stallman”, GNUisance, February 15, 2005, http://www.pigdog.org/interviews/stallman/interview_with_stallman3.html (visited on September 15, 2007); Larry Lessig, “Et Tu, KK? (Aka, No, Kevin, This Is Not ‘Socialism’),” Lessig Blog, May 28, 2009, http://www.lessig.org/blog/2009/05/et_tu_kk_aka_no_kevin_this_is.html (visited on May 29, 2009); on Maoism, see Lanier, “Digital Maoism”.

87Hayek is also the central theorist in Cass Sunstein, Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), http://books.google.com/books?id=2LW1-5E7jsQC (visited on September 27, 2007).

88Mann, “Brave New (Digital) World, Part II”, 4.

89Michael Gorman, “Revenge of the Blog People!,” Library Journal (February 15, 2005), http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA502009.html (visited on August 22, 2007).

90Wales is described as an "Enlightenment kind of guy" in Schiff, “Know It All”, 3; he is described as a "counter-enlightenment guy" in Keen, The Cult of the Amateur, 41.

91Suzanne Briet, “What Is Documentation? (Qu’Est-Ce Que La Documentation?)”, in What is Documentation: English Translation of the Classic French Text, ed. Ronald E. Day, Laurent Martinet, and Hermina G. B. Anghelescu (trans.) (1951; Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2006), 42, http://ella.slis.indiana.edu/~roday/briet.htm (accessed December 14, 2006).

92Pantisocracy was never realized and after *Metropolitana*’s initial publication, with editorial changes not to his liking, Coleridge withdrew from the project and it subsequently failed. However, his introduction expounding upon its "method" of organizing knowledge according to a progression of intellectual disciplines, rather than alphabetically, would influence other encyclopedists. For more on Coleridge’s projects see McArthur, Worlds of Reference, 157; Stockwell, A History of Information Storage and Retrieval, 109.

93Simon Winchester, The Professor and the Madman (New York: HarperCollins, 1998), 38.


95McArthur, Worlds of Reference, 93.

96Caius Plinius Caecilius, “To Baebius Macer (XXVII),” Ancient History Sourcebook, 1909, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/pliny-letters.html#GenPart%20IV (accessed March 18, 2005), XXVII.

97Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Wikipediholic,” Wikipedia, May 10, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=289128389 (visited on May 29, 2009); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Editcountitis,” Wikipedia, April 30, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=287150522 (visited on May 29, 2009).

98Wikimedia, “Elections for the Board of Trustees of the Wikimedia Foundation, 2006/En,” Wikimedia, September 23, 2006, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=439005 (visited on December 4, 2006); Wikimedia, “Board Elections/2008/En,” Wikimedia, June 27, 2008, http://meta.wikimedia.org/?oldid=1059669 (visited on July 30, 2009).

99Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Deceased Wikipedians,” Wikipedia, May 28, 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=292924929 (visited on May 29, 2009).

100Johnson, “Preface”.

101Jacobs, The-Know-It-All, 88.

102holotone, “Wikipedia Showdown!,” grupthink, August 3, 2006, http://www.grupthink.com/topic/364 (visited on August 3, 2006).

103Nov, “What Motivates Wikipedians?”

104Alexandra Shimo, “Prolific Canadian Is King of Wikipedia,” The Globe and Mail (August 4, 2006), http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20060804.wxwiki04/BNStory/Technology/?page=rss&id=RTGAM.20060804.wxwiki04 (visited on August 7, 2006).

105Wikipedia, “User:Seth Ilys/Dot Project,” Wikipedia, August 4, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=67572849 (visited on August 22, 2006).

106Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Blocking Policy,” Wikipedia, April 6, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=47260197 (visited on April 6, 2006).

107Nicolas A. Basbanes, A Gentle Madness: Bibliophiles, Bibliomanes, and the Eternal Passion for Books (New York: Henry Holt / Company, 1999).

108Charles Arthur, “Log on and Join in, but Beware the Web Cults,” The Guardian (December 15, 2005), http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2005/dec/15/wikipedia.web20 (accessed December 23, 2005).

109Gorman, “Jabberwiki”.

110Helprin, Digital Barbarism, 18.

111Lanier, “Digital Maoism”.

112Andrew Orlowski, “Wikipedia Founder Admits to Serious Quality Problems”, The Register, October 18, 2005, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/10/18/wikipedia_quality_problem/ (accessed October 20, 2005).

113Paulo Correa, Alexandra Correa, and Malgosia Askanas, “Wikipedia: A Techno-Cult of Ignorance,” Aetherometry, December 2005, http://www.aetherometry.com/Electronic_Publications/Politics_of_Science/Antiwikipedia/awp_index.html (visited on April 17, 2009).

114Otlet, “Transformations in the Bibliographical Apparatus of the Sciences”, 149.

115Kathy Bowrey and Matthew, “Rip, Mix, Burn,” First Monday 7, number 8 (July 2005), http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue7_8/bowrey/ (visited on November 6, 2007).

116Michael Gorman, “Google and God’s Mind: the Problem Is, Information Isn’t Knowledge,” Los Angeles Times (December 17, 2004), http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~lesk/spring06/lis553/ala-jan05.txt (visited on August 22, 2007).

117Kelly, “Scan This Book! What Will Happen to Books? Reader, Take Heart! Publisher, Be Very, Very Afraid. Internet Search Engines Will Set Them Free. A Manifesto”, 2.

118Ibidem, 2-3.

119Gorman, “Google and God’s Mind”, 2.

120Keen, The Cult of the Amateur, 57.

121Kevin Drum, “Google and the Human Spirit: a Reply to Michael Gorman”, Washington Monthly (December 17, 2004), http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~lesk/spring06/lis553/ala-jan05.txt (visited on August 22, 2007).

122Otlet, “The Science of Bibliography and Documentation”, 79.

123Johns, “The Birth of Scientific Reading”; Ann M. Blair, “Reading Strategies for Coping with Information Overload Ca. 1550-1700,” Journal of the History of Ideas 64, number 1 (2003): 11–28, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_the_history_of_ideas/v064/64.1blair.html (visited on May 23, 2008).

124Francis Bacon, “Of Studies,” in Bacon’s Essays; With Introduction, Notes, and Index, ed. Edwin A. Abbott (London: Longman’s, 1879), 185, http://books.google.com/books?id=BDYCAAAAQAAJ (visited on May 20, 2008).

125Hugh Of St. Victor, “The Seven Liberal Arts: on Study and Teaching (Twelfth Century),” in The Portable Medieval Reader, ed. James Bruce Ross and Mary Martin McLaughlin, Viking Portable Library (Penguin, 1977), 584-585.

126Gorman, “Revenge of the Blog People!” Much as Godwin’s Law predicts an unfavorable Nazi analogy in a long discussion, arguments about technology inevitably prompt a comparison with the Luddites, see Michael Gorman, “The Siren Song of the Internet: Part I,” Britannica Blog, June 18, 2007, http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2007/06/the-siren-song-of-the-internet-part-i/ (visited on June 29, 2007); Clay Shirky, “Gorman, Redux: the Siren Song of the Internet”, June 20, 2007, http://many.corante.com/archives/2007/06/20/gorman_redux_the_siren_song_of_the_internet.php (visited on June 29, 2007).

127Andrew Orlowski, “There’s No Wikipedia Entry for ‘Moral Responsibility’,” The Register, December 13, 2005, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/12/12/wikipedia_no_responsibility/ (accessed December 13, 2005).

128Nicholas Carr, “Stabbing Polonius,” Rough Type, April 26, 2007, http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2007/04/sanger_1.php (visited on April 30, 2007).

129Lanier, “Digital Maoism”.

130Gorman, “Web 2.0”.

131Helprin, Digital Barbarism, 65.

132Carr, “Stabbing Polonius”.

133Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Verifiability (oldid=251829388)”.

134Tapscott and Williams, Wikinomics.

135Sunstein, Why Societies Need Dissent.

136Jeremy Wagstaff, “The New Cliche: ‘It’s the Wikipedia of...’,” Loose Wire, September 29, 2005, http://loosewire.typepad.com/blog/2005/09/the_new_cliche_.html (visited on October 2, 2005).

137Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia”; PeopleProjectsAndPatterns, “Wikipedia,” Cunningham & Cunningham, 2007, http://www.c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiPedia (visited on September 21, 2007); danah boyd, “Academia and Wikipedia,” Many-to-Many, January 4, 2005, http://many.corante.com/archives/2005/01/04/academia_and_wikipedia.php (accessed January 4, 2005); Clay Shirky, “Wikipedia: Me on Boyd on Sanger on Wales,” Many-to-Many, January 5, 2005, http://many.corante.com/archives/2005/01/05/wikipedia_me_on_boyd_on_sanger_on_wales.php (visited on January 5, 2005).

138Larry Sanger, “Britannica or Nupedia? The Future of Free Encyclopedias”, Kuro5hin, July 25, 2001, http://www.kuro5hin.org/story/2001/7/25/103136/121 (visited on June 6, 2006).

139Peter Jacso, “Peter’s Picks & Pans,” Online 26 (Mar/Apr 2002): 79–83.

140Wikimedia Foundation, “Wikipedia Reaches 2 Million Articles,” Wikimedia Foundation, September 13, 2007, http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Wikipedia_Reaches_2_Million_Articles (accessed September 13, 2007); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Million Pool,” Wikipedia, August 5, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=149380521 (visited on September 7, 2007).

141Burt Helm, “Wikipedia: ‘A Work in Progress’,” Business Week Online, December 14, 2005, http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/dec2005/tc20051214_441708.htm (visited on December 15, 2005).

142Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:What Wikipedia Is Not (oldid=292975573)”.

143Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:10 Things You did Not Know about Wikipedia”, Wikipedia, September 3, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=155431119 (accessed September 7, 2007).

144The Guardian, “In Praise of ... the Wikipedia,” The Guardian (December 9, 2005), http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2005/dec/08/newmedia.comment (accessed December 9, 2005).

145John Quiggin, “Wikipedia and Sausages,” Out Of the Crooked Timer, March 1, 2006, http://crookedtimber.org/2006/03/01/wikipedia-and-sausages/ (visited on March 1, 2006).

146Bill Thompson, “Wikipedia - a Flawed and Incomplete Testament to the Essential Fallibility of Human Nature,” BBC - Digital Revolution Blog, July 23, 2009, http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/digitalrevolution/2009/07/wikipedia.shtml (accessed July 23, 2009).

147Benkler, “On ‘Digital Maoism’”.

148Cory Doctorow, “On ‘Digital Maoism’,” Edge, May 30, 2006, http://www.edge.org/discourse/digital_maoism.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

149Kevin Kelly, “On ‘Digital Maoism’,” Edge, May 30, 2006, http://www.edge.org/discourse/digital_maoism.html (visited on June 7, 2006).

150Giles, “Internet Encyclopaedias Go Head to Head”.

151Nate Anderson, “Britannica Attacks Nature in Newspaper Ads,” Ars Technica, April 5, 2006, http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20060405-6530.html (accessed April 5, 2006); Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:External Peer Review/Nature December 2005/Errors,” Wikipedia, February 9, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=38886868 (visited on April 6, 2006).

152Orlowski, “Wikipedia Founder Admits to Serious Quality Problems”.

153Robert McHenry, quoted in Schiff, “Know It All”, 7.

154Carr, “The Amorality of Web 2.0”.

155Peter Denning et al., “Inside Risks: Wikipedia Risks,” Communications of the ACM 48, number 12 (2005): 152, http://www.csl.sri.com/users/neumann/insiderisks05.html#186 (visited on May 1, 2007); Keen, The Cult of the Amateur, 27.

156Wikipedia, “Every Time You Masturbate... God Kills a Kitten,” Wikipedia, September 11, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=157104187 (accessed September 13, 2007); Keen, The Cult of the Amateur, 29.

157Nick Carr, “Is Google Making Us Stupid?,” Atlantic Monthly (July 2008), http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200807/google (visited on June 27, 2008); a well researched and persuasive argument of detrimental media effects can be found in Mark Bauerlein, The Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Is Stupefied as Young Americans and Jeopardizes Our Future: or, Don’t Trust Anyone under 30 (New York: Tarcher/Penguin, 2008).

158Gorman, “Web 2.0”.

159Gorman, “Jabberwiki”.

160Shirky, “Old Revolutions Good, New Revolutions Bad”.

161Scott Mclemee, “Mass Culture 2.0,” Inside Higher Ed, June 20, 2007, http://insidehighered.com/views/2007/06/20/mclemee (visited on June 27, 2007), 4.

162Douglas Adams, “How to Stop Worrying and Learn to Love the Internet,” The Sunday Times (August 29, 1999), http://www.douglasadams.com/dna/19990901-00-a.html (visited on December 12, 2007).

163Clay Shirky, “Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable,” Shirky, March 13, 2009, http://www.shirky.com/weblog/2009/03/newspapers-and-thinking-the-unthinkable/ (visited on March 14, 2009); Weber, The Success of Open Source.

164Hunter R. Rawlings III, “Information, Knowledge, Authority, and Democracy (ARL Keynote),” October 10, 2007, http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/mm-f07-rawlings.pdf (visited on April 17, 2009).

Chapter  8

1Conversely, although Wells would have been fascinated with the “technological paraphernalia of our networked age,” “he would equally have cared little for its individualism, cultural relativism and a lack of respect for professionals and experts,” as argued by Muddiman, “The Universal Library as Modern Utopia”, 98.

2Coincidentally, Mike Godwin, author of Godwin’s Law and the seminal “Nine Principles for Making Virtual Communities Work,” joined the Wikimedia Foundation as its General Counsel and Legal Coordinator in July 2007, as announced by Florence Devouard, “Welcome Mike !,” Foundation-l, July 3, 2007, http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/foundation-l/2007-July/031128.html (accessed July 24, 2007). Wikipedian expressed hope that his insight and experience with online community would help Wikipedia address some of its challenges.

3Carol Tavris and Elliot Aronson, Mistakes Were Made but Not by Me: Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts (New York: Harcourt, 2007).

4Jimmy Wales, “A Culture of Co-Operation,” wikipedia-l, November 5, 2001, http://marc.info/?l=wikipedia-l&m=104216623606518&w=2 (visited on August 23, 2005).

5Schiff, “Know It All”, 1.

6Abraham Lincoln, “First Inaugural Address,” March 4, 1861, http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres31.html (visited on November 14, 2007).

7Peter Kropotkin, “Mutual Aid: a Factor of Evolution,” 1902, http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/kropotkin/mutaidcontents.html (accessed December 20, 2007).

8Larry Sanger, quoted in Wade Roush, “Larry Sanger’s Knowledge Free-for-All”, Technology Review (January 2005): 21, http://www.technologyreview.com/business/14071/ (visited on January 4, 2005).

9Peter Kollock, “The Economies of Online Cooperation: Gifts and Public Goods in Cyberspace,” in Communities in Cyberspace, ed. Marc Smith and Peter Kollock (London: Routledge Press, 1999), 220, http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/archive/00002998/ (accessed November 20, 2004).

10Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia”.

11Larry Sanger, “Text and Collaboration, Part I,” Kuro5hin, May 28, 2006, http://www.kuro5hin.org/story/2006/5/26/162017/011 (visited on June 8, 2006), 4.

12Ibidem, 6.

13Stephen Foley, “So Is Wikipedia Cracking up?,” The Independent (February 3, 2009), http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/features/is-wikipedia-cracking-up-1543527.html (visited on February 4, 2009).

14Eric Goldman, “Wikipedia Will Fail in Four Years,” Technology & Marketing Law Blog, December 5, 2006, http://blog.ericgoldman.org/archives/2006/12/wikipedia_will_1.htm (accessed February 18, 2009); Nate Anderson, “Doomed: Why Wikipedia Will Fail,” Ars Technica, February 12, 2009, http://arstechnica.com/web/news/2009/02/doomed-why-wikipedia-will-fail.ars (accessed February 12, 2009).

15Wikipedia, “User:Raul654/Raul’s Laws (oldid=301373968)”.

16Weber, Economy and Society, 244.