Evans and Collins (2007) Expertises

DISPOSITIONS Interactive ability Reflective ability
both convert latent interactional expertise into realized interactional expertise

SPECIALIST
EXPERTISE

(domain specific)

UBIQUITOUS

TACIT KNOWLEDGE

SPECIALIST

TACIT KNOWLEDGE

Beer-mat knowledge: doesn't allow action.

(e.g., knowing rule for bishop doesn't make one a chess player)

Popular understanding: a deeper understanding of meaning, transmissible, only appropriate to settled science. Primary source knowledge: knowledge gained from domain literature. May not be informed by what is important to field. interactional expertise: novice, advanced beginner, competence, proficiency, expertise.

May understand, but cannot do.

Contributory expertise: ability to contribute to domain.
  • Mimeomorphic: do not rely on social understanding, can be reproduced by mimicry
  • Polymorphic: depend on social understanding, must adapt, cannot be mastered by machines
META - EXPERTISES

(judging other expertises)

EXTERNAL

(Transmuted expertises)

an understanding of experts rather than topical expertise; omni-directional

INTERNAL

(Non-transmuted expertises)

a substantive understanding; down-directional

Ubiquitous Discrimination

based on ubiquitous expertise one gains ("enculturation") in a democratic society

e.g., language fluency, choosing between politicians, sales persons, service providers, etc.

Local Discrimination

knowledge of those around you

Technical connoisseurship

"experience within the conventions of judgment rather than experience of the skill itself." "turns on on interactional expertise alone".

e.g., architect can recommend tiles, even if no tiling experience

Downward discrimination

based on those who share or exceed your own expertise

e.g., peer review

Referred expertise

"the indirect application of domain-specific contributory expertise from one domain within another"

e.g., a physicist running a telescope project

META - CRITERIA

(indicators of expertise)

Credientials

excludes ubiquitous discrimination (public) and uncredential experts

Track record

excludes those with no track records because they are new to the public debate (e.g., sheep farmers), the ubiquitous and local discrimination of the public and in new fields

Experience

the best criteria though no guarantee of competence