[The pdf version may be accessed by authenticated users here]

In Good Faith: Wikipedia Collaboration and the Pursuit of the Universal Encyclopedia

Joseph M. Reagle Jr.

Copyright ©2008


In the following pages I observe that building an encyclopedia is a cumulative and interdependent activity, this work is no different. While I might have the occasionally interesting thought and I've no doubt make a few errors, this dissertation is a fabric woven from the contributions of many. So much so that it seems impossible to properly acknowledge all those who have influenced and supported this work. But as in any other seemingly impossible task, like creating an encyclopedia, one must start somewhere—and the perfect is the enemy of the good.

I extend my thanks to my committee chairperson, Helen Nissenbaum; I am sometimes forced to apologize that "I'm no philosopher," but Helen is and I'm glad because I think her care and attention has improved this work greatly. Also, since she first encouraged me to share and discuss Michael Sheeran's Beyond Majority Rule with her, which greatly influenced the substance and method of this work, she afforded me an admirable balance of intellectual freedom and challenge. Gabriella Coleman, also on my committee and fellow researcher of open communities, has been an enthusiastic reviewer and inspiration. Finally, I'm grateful to Natalia Levina, my third committee member, for introducing me to organizational research and recommending key authors who would inform much of this work.

Other faculty that merit a "thank you" are JoEllen Fisherkeller, Alex Galloway, Brett Gary, Ted Magder, W. Boyd Rayward, Siva Vaidhyanathan, and Jonathan Zimmerman. And though they didn't have a direct bearing on the present work, I'd also like to thank Tim Berners-Lee, Colin Burke, Tim Finin, Lawrence Lessig, and Lee McKnight for providing support throughout my career: they each helped me get to the point where I could do this project.

Colleagues and friends who discussed drafts, sent comments, listened to me talk an idea through, or pointed out a missed connection or useful reference include Melissa Aronczyk, Phoebe Ayers, Samir Chopra, Shay David, Said Hamideh, Sam Howard-Spink, Ian Jacobs, Rob Jones, Jelena Karanovic, Cormac Lawler, Lawrence Liang, Andrew Lih, David Parisi, Devon Powers, Evan Prodromou, Aaron Swartz, Michael Zimmer, and Jakob Voss. Also, members of the comp.text.tex discussion group were kind enough to help me with my LaTeX questions. Nora Schaddelee deserves special thanks for having put up with more of my wiki rambling than anyone else, and she also read the earliest—and cruftiest—draft of most every chapter that follows.

Also, thank you to the Wikipedians who spoke to me about their experiences. I have only named those people who have influenced or commented upon this work specifically, but the scope of this work includes many other conversations. Some appear as sources in this work, but most do not. Also, the vast majority of my sources are simply the public discourse of a community from which I have sampled only the tip of the iceberg, and I have portrayed only a fragment of that tip of research in this work. From a methodological perspective it seems odd to thank those who have contributed to a (public) archive and project, but I feel a sense of gratitude nevertheless. Additionally, I'm grateful to my friends and family, including those who had little interest in the particulars of this work but wished me well even so. Indeed, opportunities to talk about things other than school and Wikipedia were a welcome refuge at times.

Finally, I want to note a few institutions that in one way or another served as a home to me in the past few years. First, the World Wide Consortium (W3C) provided much of the inspiration for my interest in collaboration as did our conversations about consensus. The Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School provided me an important opportunity to begin reflecting on online collaboration. The NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development provided me with a pre-doctoral summer research grant, and its Department of Media, Culture, and Communication generously granted me a fellowship for my first three years of Ph.D. course work. Finally, most of this dissertation was written at the Carroll Gardens branch of the Brooklyn Public Library: a hospitable, though often noisy, environment in which I was surprisingly productive up in its little balcony of comics and tax forms.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction
A Wikipedia Primer
The Core Content Policies
A Bibliographic Note
Historical Heritage
2 Wikipedia's Heritage: the Universal Encyclopedia
The Index Card and Microfilm
Paul Otlet and the Universal Bibliographic Repertory
H. G. Wells and the World Brain
Vannevar Bush and the Memex
Digital Computers and Networks
Project Gutenberg
Distributed Encyclopedia
The Web and Wikis
Conclusion: Predicting the Future, Reading the Past
A Timeline of Events
3 The Production of Reference Works
Smart Guys and Wikiholics
The Busy Bees of Knowledge Production
Wasps, Shoulders, Ladders, and Bees
"The Best Way"
Memory and the Deluge of Knowledge
The Corporate Production of Reference Works
Wikipedia and "One for All"
Community and Collaboration
4 Wikipedia as an Open Content Community
The Wikipedia Community
Open Products
Transparency and Integrity
Challenges to Wikipedia's Openness
Can Anyone Really Edit?
Open Communities and Closed Law
Enclaves and Gender
5 Collaborative Good Faith Culture
A Caveat about "Collaborative Culture"
Practice and Policy
Wikipedia Policy, Guidelines, and the Five Pillars
"Neutral Point Of View" and Good Faith: an Example
The Epistemic Stance of "Neutral Point Of View"
The Intersubjective Stance of Good Faith
Assuming the Best of Others
6 Leadership: The Benevolent Dictator
Leadership in Open Content Communities
Leadership and Wikipedia
Administrators and the Board
Discussing Leadership
Dictatorships and Jimbo's Role
Leadership and Good Faith Culture
Authorial Leadership, a Theory
Today and the Future
7 Encyclopedic Anxiety
Progressive and Conservative
Webster's Third at the Center of a Storm
Wikipedia Criticism
The Normativeness of the Reference Work
Web 2.0
Wikipedia's Critics
Collaborative Practice
Universal Vision
Encyclopedic Impulse
Technological Inspiration
8 Conclusion
9 Postscript: Methodology
Aspiration and Inspiration
Research: Time, Sites, and Tags


Wikipedia is not merely an online encyclopedia; although the Web site is useful, popular, and permits nearly anyone to contribute, the site is only the most visible artifact of an active community. Unlike previous reference works which stand on library shelves distanced from the institutions, people, and discussions from which they arose, Wikipedia is a community and the encyclopedia is a snapshot of its continuing conversation. This conversation is frequently exasperating, often humorous, and occasionally profound. Most importantly, it sometimes reveals what I call a "good faith" culture. I believe Wikipedia and its collaborative culture is a realization—even if flawed—of a century's old pursuit of a universal encyclopedia: a technological inspired vision seeking to wed increased access to information with greater human accord. Elements of this good faith culture can be found in the following conversation about a possible “neo-Nazi attack” upon Wikipedia.

In early 2005 members of Stormfront, a "white pride" online forum, focused their sights on Wikipedia. In February, they sought to marshal votes against the deletion of the article "Jewish Ethnocentrism," an article favored by some "white nationalists" and making use of evolutionary psychologist Kevin MacDonald's controversial theories of a Jewish people in competition with and subjugating other ethnic groups. Their "alert," forwarded by Wikipedian AndyL (2005a), was surprisingly sensitive to the culture of Wikipedia by warning "you must give your reason as to why you voted to keep the article - needless to say you should do so in a cordial manner, those wishing to delete the article will latch onto anything they can as an excuse to be hostile towards anybody criticising Jewish culture." Six months later AndyL (2005b) again noticed that participants of Stormfront, perhaps dissatisfied with their earlier efforts, were considering using the software that runs Wikipedia, or even some of its content, to create their own ("forked") version more to their liking.

The charge of "Nazism" has a long and odd history in the realm of online community. One of the most famous aphorisms from earlier Internet discussion groups is Godwin's Law: "As an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches one" (Godwin,1994a). 1 Godwin's Law speaks to a tendency of online participants to think the worst of each other. Yet, throughout the immense Wikipedia discussion threads prompted by a potential "neo-Nazi attack" no one compared anyone else to Hitler. Granted, some Stormfront members are self-identified Nazis for whom the term would not be an insult, but there was also serious disagreement between Wikipedians—and even the white racialists reminded themselves they need be cordial on Wikipedia.

In August of the same year Wikipedia user Amelkite, the owner/operator of the white supremacist Vanguard-News-Network, had his Wikipedia account blocked. MattCrypto, a Wikipedia administrator, thinking it unfair to block someone because of their affiliation rather than Wikipedia actions unblocked him. This prompted another administrator, SlimVirgin, to reblock pointing out Amelkite had posted a list of prominent Wikipedians thought to be Jews, or their conspirators, as well as information on how to counter Wikipedia controls of disruption. The conversation between Wikipedia administrators remained civil:

MattCrypto: Hi SlimVirgin, I don't like getting into conflict, particularly with things like block wars and protect wars, so I'm unhappy about this.

SlimVirgin: I take your point, Matt, but I feel you ought to have discussed this with the blocking admin, rather than undoing the block.

This interaction prompted Jimmy ('Jimbo') Wales, Wikipedia cofounder and leader, to write: "SlimVirgin, MattCrypto: this is why I love Wikipedians so much. I love this kind of discussion. Assume good faith, careful reasoning, a discussion which doesn't involve personal attacks of any kind, a disagreement with a positive exploration of the deeper issues" (Wales,2005g). Whereas Godwin's Law recognizes the tendency to think the worst of others, Wikipedia culture encourages contributors to treat and think of others well. For example, participants are supposed to abide by the norm of "Wikiquette" (Wikipedia,2006v), which includes the principles of "Assume Good Faith" (AGF) (Wikipedia,2006m) and "Please Do Not Bite the Newcomers" (Wikipedia,2006ab). Contributions to Wikipedia articles are supposed to be written from a "Neutral Point of View" (NPOV) (Wikipedia,2006x), which means articles should explain without advocating and characterize debates without engaging in them. Such Wikipedia norms and their relationship to the technology, discourse, and vision of a universal encyclopedia prompt me to ask: How should we understand this community's collaborative—"good faith"—culture? I claim that Wikipedia (the textual artifact, the community, and its culture) is the closest realization yet of a long held aspiration for a universal encyclopedia; I do this by way of history and ethnography in three parts.

I start part 1 by arguing that Wikipedia is an heir to a twentieth century vision of universal access and goodwill; an idea advocated by H. G. Wells and Paul Otlet almost a century ago. This vision is inspired by technological innovation—microfilm and index cards then, digital networks today—and driven by the encyclopedic impulse to capture and index everything known. In some ways my argument is an update to that made by Boyd Rayward (1994) who notes similarities between Paul Otlet's information "Repertory" and Project Xanadu, an early hypertext system. My effort entails not only showing similarities in the aspirations and technical features of these older visions and Wikipedia, but also the recovery and placement of a number of Wikipedia's predecessors (e.g., Project Gutenberg, Interpedia, Nupedia) within this history. Most importantly, until recently the universal encyclopedic vision had largely gone unfulfilled. With the relative success of Wikipedia, one can then ask: what makes it different?

One typical response to the question of Wikipedia's success is, of course, to focus on how it is produced. Unfortunately, while there is a rich literature on the production of reference works (e.g., McArthur,1986;Stockwell,2001;Yeo,2001) Wikipedia is rarely framed within this historical context. In an article for Wired Daniel Pink (2005) proves to be an exception. Pink posits three periods (types) of encyclopedia production: the "One Smart Guy" model of the earliest encyclopedias, the "One Best Way" model of Britannica's corporate knowledge production (in both a collective and commercial sense), and the "One for All" model of Wikipedia. While I appreciate this effort to think historically, in chapter 3, I also challenge Pink's periodization. I adopt Pink's three periods as my foil: adding some historical detail, and sometimes confirming and sometimes complicating the boundaries between the periods of lone genius and corporate activity. At the same time I engage the secondary literature on reference works to place Wikipedia within a history of knowledge production, focusing on their (often fervent) creators, and the cooperation, competition and plagiarism encountered in their production.

And while there is a burgeoning literature on the character of Wikipedia contribution including theories of production (e.g.,Ciffolilli,2003), motivation (e.g.,Bryant etal.,2005;Rafaeli etal.,2005;Kuznetsov,2006;Schroer and Hertel,2007;Johnson,2007), content structure (e.g.,Voss,2005;Buriol etal.,2006;Capocci etal.,2006), the strength and distribution of edits among participants (e.g.,Kittur etal.,2007b;Ortega and Gonzalez-Barahona,2007,2008), and article quality (e.g.,Anthony etal.,2005;Duguid,2006;Viegas etal.,2007;Ball,2007), I find the actual community and its collaborative culture to be most salient. For example, I believe to characterize Wikipedia as a "one for all," or even a "free-for-all," is incomplete because it neglects the importance of cultural norms within the community.

Therefore, in part 2 I turn to an ethnography of Wikipedia community, culture, and leadership. In chapter 4 I briefly describe Wikipedia community and test it against the criteria of what I call an open content community. This notion is inspired by Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the subsequent popularization of "openness" (as discussed inReagle,2006b) but focuses on community rather than copyright licenses. I then consider three cases that challenge Wikipedia's openness as "the free encyclopedia anyone can edit"—an appropriate motto for the universal vision of increased information access.

And while openness might be considered a virtue, it unfortunately does not mean all interaction is necessarily productive or enjoyable; in fact, openness often poses significant challenges to the community. These challenges can, in part, be addressed by the community's collaborative culture. The relevance of "prosocial" (Bowles and Gintis,1998;Sproull etal.,2004) culture has been noted by other scholars in the online context (e.g.,von Krogh,1998;Jarvenpaa and Leidner,1999;Preece and Ghozati,2001;Preece,2004) and Wikipedia provides an excellent opportunity, because of its reflective documentation and discourse, to see how such norms emerge and how they are enacted and understood. In particular, in chapter 6 I focus on the norms of "Neutral Point of View" and "Assume Good Faith" to argue that an open perspective on both knowledge claims and other contributors, respectively, makes for extraordinary collaborative potential in addition to coinciding with the earliest visionaries' call for international goodwill.

And just as the complexities inherent in the understanding and practice of openness and good faith reveal the character of Wikipedia, and prompt theoretical insights into this type of community, leadership, too, is fascinating and potentially generative. In open content communities, like Wikipedia, there is often a seemingly paradoxical use of the title "Benevolent Dictator" for leaders. In chapter 5, I explore discourse around the use of this moniker so as to address how leadership works in open content communities and provide the background for some of the concerns and norms encountered in earlier chapters. I first review existing literature on "emergent leadership" (Bass,1990;Yoo and Alavi,2004) and FOSS leadership (O'Mahony and Ferraro,2003,2004;Bosco,2004;O'Mahony and Ferraro,2007) and then relate excerpts from community discourse on how leadership is understood, performed, and discussed by Wikipedians. I conclude by integrating concepts from existing literature and my own findings into a theory of "authorial" leadership: leaders must parlay merit resulting from authoring something significant into a form of authority that can also be used in an autocratic fashion, to arbitrate between those of good faith or defend against those of bad faith, with a soft touch and humor when—and only when—necessary.

Finally, in part 3 I focus on the cultural reception and interpretation of Wikipedia. The way in which Wikipedia is collaboratively produced has caught the attention of the world. Discourse about the efficacy and legitimacy of such work abound, from the news pages of The New York Times to the satire of The Onion. Building on the literature around controversies surrounding specific reference works (e.g.,Einbinder,1964;Morton,1994;Wallace,2001) I make a broader argument that reference works can serve as a flashpoint for larger social anxieties about technological and social change. With this understanding in hand, I try to make sense of the social unease embodied in and prompted by Wikipedia by way of four themes present throughout this work: collaborative practice, universal vision, encyclopedic impulse, and technological inspiration.

I conclude with a reflection upon the metaphor of a jigsaw puzzle. In his 1936 manifesto for a World Brain, H. G. Wells proposed to bring together the puzzle pieces of "all the scattered and ineffective mental wealth of the world into something like a common understanding" (Wells,1936, p.920). Seventy years later, Wikipedia's logo is that of a not yet complete global jigsaw puzzle. I think this coincidence is representative of a shared dream across the decades. I also think the metaphor is useful in understanding Wikipedia collaboration: "Neutral Point of View" ensures that the scattered pieces of what we think we know can be joined and good faith facilitates the actual practice of fitting them together. I offer this metaphor of a puzzle as a means of understanding both Wikipedia's heritage and its collaborative culture today.

A description of my aspirations, influences, and research practice is also provided as a methodological postscript.

A Wikipedia Primer

Before launching into my discussion of reference works, I want to briefly introduce the Wikipedia (and wikis) and the core principles of its collaborative culture. With these in mind, I hope the reader can easily follow the rest of this work.


Wikipedia is an online "wiki" based encyclopedia. "Wiki wiki" means "super fast" in the Hawaiian language, and Ward Cunningham chose the name for his project in 1995 to indicate the ease with which one could edit Web pages. In a sense, wikis captures the original conception of the World Wide Web as both a browsing and editing medium; the latter capability was largely forgotten when the Web began its precipitous growth and the most popular clients did not provide the ability for users to edit Web pages.

The wiki changed this asymmetry by placing the editing functionality on the server. Consequently, if a page can be read, it can be edited in any browser. With a wiki, the user enters a simplified markup into a form on a Web page. Using the Wikipedia syntax one simply types "# this provides a link to [[Giddens]]" to add a numbered list item with a link to the "Anthony Giddens" article. The server-side Wikipedia software translates this into the appropriate HTML and hypertext links. To create a new page, one simply creates a link to it. Furthermore, each page includes links through which one can sign in (if desired), view a log of recent changes to the page (including the author and time), or participate in a discussion about how the page is being edited on its "Talk" or "Discussion" page—and this too is wiki. The application of the simple and general wiki platform enables surprisingly sophisticated content creation.

Because users are working together on a single server, other useful features have been implemented. The "Watchlist" is a special page, like a collection of Wikipedia bookmarks, that permits a user to keep track of edits to articles she is concerned with (i.e., "watching.") A wiki template is "a page which can be inserted into another page via a process called transclusion" (Wikipedia,2007ah). These small template "pages" (usually no more than a few lines of text) can include warnings about the status or quality of an article. Templates are most often invoked by way of a shortcut that is specified via a pair of curly parentheses. So, with the inclusion of the "{{pp-vandalism}}" tag a Wikipedia page will include a warning box that "this page is currently protected from editing to deal with vandalism." A special page can then easily list all pages presently using that template, so Wikipedians can keep an eye on those pages that are being locked. And, as we will see throughout this work, wikis are often thought of as potent collaborative tools because they permit asynchronous, incremental, and transparent contributions from many.

Yet, as is often the case, the consequence of this quick and informal approach of editing the Web was not foreseen—or, rather, was pleasantly surprising. The wiki-based Wikipedia is the populist offshoot of the Nupedia encyclopedia project started in March of 2000 by Jimbo Wales and Larry Sanger. Nupedia's mission was to create a free encyclopedia via rigorous expert review under a free documentation license. Unfortunately, this process moved rather slowly and having recently been introduced to wikis, Sanger persuaded Wales to set up a scratch-pad for potential Nupedia content where anyone could contribute. However, "There was considerable resistance on the part of Nupedia's editors and reviewers …to making Nupedia closely associated with a website in the wiki format. Therefore, the new project was given the name 'Wikipedia' and launched on its own address, Wikipedia.com, on January 15 [2001]" (Wikipedia,2006c).

Wikipedia proved to be so successful that when the server hosting Nupedia crashed in September of 2003 (with little more than 24 "complete" articles and 74 more in progress (Wikipedia,2006h)) it was never restored. As of September 2007 there are over "75,000 active contributors working on more than 5,300,000 articles in more than 100 languages" (Wikipedia,2007av); the original English version exceeds 2,000,000 articles, having long ago subsumed most of the original Nupedia content. The Wikimedia Foundation, incorporated in 2003, is now the steward of Wikipedia as well as a wiki based dictionary, compendium of quotations, collaborative textbooks, and a repository of free source texts.

The Core Content Policies

The three core policies of Wikipedia are "Neutral Point Of View" (NPOV) (Wikipedia,2006x), "No Original Research" (NOR) (Wikipedia,2006y) and "Verifiability" (Wikipedia,2006af). Understanding these complementary concepts goes a long way towards understanding Wikipedia culture itself.

While NPOV at first seems like an impossible, or even na�ve, reach towards an objectively neutral knowledge, it is quite the opposite. The NPOV policy instead recognizes the multitude of viewpoints and provides an epistemic stance in which they all can be recognized as instances of human knowledge—right or wrong. The NPOV policy seeks to achieve the "fair" representation of all sides of the dispute such that all can feel represented (Wikipedia,2006x). Hence, the clear goal of providing an encyclopedia of all human knowledge explicitly avoids many entanglements. Yet, when disagreements do occur they often involve alleged violations of NPOV. Accusations of and discussions about bias are common within the community and any "POV pushing"—as Wikipedians say—is seen as compromising the quality of the articles and the ability for disparate people to work together. Almost a century ago H. G. Wells also appreciated this point as it related to his proposal for a World Brain: an "encyclopedia appealing to all mankind" must remain open to corrective criticism and be guarded "with utmost jealousy against the incessant invasion of narrowing propaganda;" it must have the "general flavor" of skepticism and that for "myth, however venerated, it must treat as myth and not as symbolical rendering of some higher truth or any such evasion" (Wells,1938, p.55). However, violations of NPOV are not necessarily purposeful, but can result from the ignorance of a new participant or the heat of an argument. In some circumstances, the debate legitimately raises substantive questions about NPOV. In any case, while some perceive NPOV as a source of conflict, it may act instead as a conduit: reducing conflict and otherwise channeling arguments in the productive context of the primary goal of developing an encyclopedia.

The last two policies are both about attribution, meaning "All material in Wikipedia must be attributable to a reliable, published source" (Wikipedia,2007az). The notion of "No Original Research" (NOR) (Wikipedia,2006y) permits the community to avoid arguments about crackpots, pet theories, neologisms, and vanity links (i.e., a person links from the Wikipedia to a site they wish to promote). If someone has "a great idea that you think should become part of the corpus of knowledge that is Wikipedia, the best approach is to publish your results in a good peer-reviewed journal, and then document your work in an appropriately non-partisan manner" (Wikipedia,2006y). Interestingly, one of Wells contemporaries in time and vision, the Belgian "documentalist" Paul Otlet, had a similar notion for his own project: "Readers, abstractors, systematisers, abbreviators, summarizers and ultimately synthesizers, they will be persons whose function is not original research or the development of new knowledge or even teaching existing systematic knowledge. Rather their function will be to preserve what has been discovered, to gather in our intellectual harvests, classify the elements of knowledge" (Otlet,1990a, p.83-84). Since Wikipedia does not publish original research, Verifiability then implies that "any reader must be able to check that material added to Wikipedia has already been published by a reliable source" (Wikipedia,2006af).

These three policies of "Neutral Point of View," "No Original Research," and "Verifiability" have been characterized as the "holy trinity" of Wikipedia (GeorgeLouis,2006), without one being preeminent over any other, according to Wales:

I consider all three of these to be different aspects of the same thing, ultimately. And at the moment, when I think about any examples of apparent tensions between the three, I think the right answer is to follow all three of them or else just leave it out of Wikipedia. We know, with some certainty, that all three of these will mean that Wikipedia will have less content than otherwise, and in some cases will prevent the addition of true statements. For example, a brilliant scientist conceives of a new theory which happens to be true, but so far unpublished. We will not cover it, we will not let this scientist publish it in Wikipedia. A loss, to be sure. But a much much bigger gain on average, since we are not qualified to evaluate such things, and we would otherwise be overwhelmed with abject nonsense from POV pushing lunatics. There is no simple a priori answer to every case, but good editorial judgment and the negotiation of reasonable people committed to quality is the best that humans have figured out so far. :) –Jimbo Wales 15:33, 15 August 2006 (UTC) (Wales,2006g)

These norms will be more fully discussed in the following chapters.

A Bibliographic Note

The type and number of bibliographic sources of this work merit comment.

First, most of the primary sources are exclusively online. Quotations from e-mail and most online resources have no page numbers associated with them. Also, my intention is to present quoted text verbatim, with minimal corrections or editorial caveats such as "[sic]." Given the large amount of grammatical and syntactical deviations online, I fear it would interfere with the text, consequently I usually make such interventions only when they are necessary to comprehension.

Second, many of the printed sources (primary and secondary) are now online. This is common in recent works where authors place versions of a print publication online, or where older works are now in the public domain and have been republished online. In such cases I use the publication date of the version I used. If necessary, I include the original publication date in prose adjacent to the reference, and I include it in the title of the work in the bibliography. For example the bibliographic entry for the republication of H. G. Wells' "A Modern Utopia" would be:

Wells, H. (2004). A modern utopia (1905). (6424). Retrieved on September 20, 2006 from < http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext04/mdntp10h.htm>.

The page numbers associated with print-only sources obviously correspond to the printed page. For those sources that are also online, the page number might be associated with the pagination of the printed online resource from which I first took my notes, or the printed material, for which I later found an online copy. I believe it will be clear to the reader which is the case.

Finally, Web sources do change, particularly wiki pages! Wherever possible I include the date of the version of the source to which I am referring. Wikimedia resources are also identified by their versioned, "stable" or "permanent," URL. On a couple of occasions, I do reference different versions of the same wiki page.

All of this may sound confusing, and it was no easy task coming to this understanding, but in the end I hope it is useful. If the intention of bibliography is to permit the reader to follow the author's journey through the sources, the ready accessibility of online resources is a boon to all.



Aigrain, P. (2003). The individual and the collective in open information communities. 16th BLED Electronic Commerce Conference, 9-11. Retrieved April 25, 2004 from http://opensource.mit.edu/papers/aigrain3.pdf.

Alphax (2006). Re: Fwd: Request to mailing list Wikichix-l rejected. wikien-l. Retrieved December 05, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=45758194.7020503@gmail.com.

Anderson, C. (2006). The Long tail: why the future of business is selling less for more. Hyperion, New York.

AndyL (2005a). Neo-nazis attempt to stack wikivote on Jewish. wikien-l. Retrieved February 06, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=BE2BEA7C.4E78%andyl2004@sympatico.ca.

AndyL (2005b). [wikien-l] A neo-nazi wikipedia. wikien-l. Retrieved August 23, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=20050819221529.ZQFS2134.tomts48-srv.bellnexxia.net@[].

Angela (2006). Introducing a new mailing list. wikien-l. Retrieved December 04, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=8b722b800612032144j1711060by4a60db0e8a051460@mail.gmail.com.

Anonymous et al. (2007). How to Writer’s Guide - wikiHow. wikiHow. Retrieved August 21, 2007 21:46 UTC from http://www.wikihow.com/Writer's-Guide.

Anthere (2005a). Re: NYTimes.com: Google may host encyclopedia project. wikipedia-l. Retrieved February 14, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=4211339B.6030803@yahoo.com.

Anthere (2005b). Re: Sanger’s memoirs. wikipedia-l. Retrieved April 23, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=4269F0E4.8080501@yahoo.com.

Anthony, D., Smith, S. W., and Williamson, T. (2005). Explaining quality in Internet collective goods : zealots and Good Samaritans in the case of Wikipedia. unpublished. Retrieved June 08, 2006 from http://web.mit.edu/iandeseminar/Papers/Fall2005/anthony.pdf.

Arthur, C. (2005). Log on and join in, but beware the web cults. The Guardian. Retrieved December 23, 2005 from http://technology.guardian.co.uk/opinion/story/0,16541,1667346,00.html.

Baker, N. (2008). The charms of Wikipedia. The New York Review of Books, 55(4). Retrieved March 19, 2008 from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/21131.

Ball, P. (2007). The more, the wikier: the secret to the quality of Wikipedia entries is lots of edits by lots of people. news@nature.com. Retrieved March 01, 2007 from http://www.nature.com/news/2007/070226/full/070226-6.html.

Barasch, M. I. (2005). Field notes on the compassionate life: a search for the soul of kindness. Rodale, New York.

Barger, J. (1997). Beyond the Interpedia? alt.internet.search. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from http://groups.google.com/group/alt.internet.search/browse_thread/thread/3c82a33e70e748a0/da917af65e3ca53c?lnk=st&q=%22project+gutenberg%22+%22britannica%22&rnum=4&hl=en#da917af65e3ca53c.

Barnett, C. (2005). Wiki Mania. Florida Trend. Retrieved October 18, 2005 from http://www.floridatrend.com/issue/default.asp?a=5617&s=1&d=9/1/2005.

Barthes, R. (2005). The neutral. Columbia University Press, New York.

Basbanes, N. A. (1999). A gentle madness: bibliophiles, bibliomanes, and the eternal passion for books. Henry Holt and Company, New York.

Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill’s handbook of leadership : theory, research, and managerial applications. Free Press, New York, 3 edition.

Batson, C. D. (1991). The altruism question: toward a social-psychological answer. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey.

Battles, M. (2007). Authority of a new kind. Britannica Blog: Web 2.0 Forum. Retrieved June 27, 2007 from http://blogs.britannica.com/blog/main/2007/06/authority-of-a-new-kind/.

Beck, K., Mike Beedle, A. v., Cockburn, A., Cunningham, W., Fowler, M., Grenning, J., Highsmith, J., Hunt, A., Jeffries, R., Kern, J., Marick, B., Martin, R. C., Mellor, S., Schwaber, K., Sutherland, J., and Thomas, D. (2001). Manifesto for Agile Software Development. Retrieved April 06, 2007 14:02 UTC from http://agilemanifesto.org/.

Bellah, R. N., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W. M., Swidler, A., and Tipton, S. M. (1996). Habits of the heart: individualism and commitment in American life. University Of California Press, Berkeley.

Benkler, Y. (2002). Coase’s penguin, or, Linux and the nature of the firm. The Yale Law Journal, 112(3):369–446.

Benkler, Y. (2006a). On ”digital Maoism”. Edge. Retrieved June 07, 2006 17:18 UTC from http://www.edge.org/discourse/digital_maoism.html.

Benkler, Y. (2006b). The wealth of networks: how social production transforms markets and freedom. Yale University Press, New Haven. Retrieved December 05, 2007 from http://www.benkler.org/wealth_of_networks/index.php/Main_Page.

Benkler, Y. and Nissenbaum, H. (2006). Commons-based peer-production and virtue. The Journal of Political Philosophy, (4). Retrieved October 16, 2006 from http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/papers/Benk_Niss_Vir052905.doc.

Berners-Lee, T. (1999). Weaving the Web: the original design and ultimate destiny of the World Wide Web by its inventor. HarperSanFrancisco, San Francisco.

Blackburn, S. (1996). Culture. In Blackburn, S., editor, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Retrieved February 16, 2005 from http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t98.e591&srn=9&ssid=220921529#FIRSTHIT.

Bohm, D. (1996). On dialog. Routledge, New York.

Bosco, G. (2004). Implicit theories of ”good leadership” in the open-source community. Master’s thesis, Technical University of Denmark. Retrieved January 13, 2006 from http://opensource.mit.edu/papers/bosco.pdf.

Bowles, S. and Gintis, H. (1998). The moral economy of communities: structured populations and the evolution of pro-social norms. Evolution & Human Behavior, 19(1):3–25. Retrieved December 11, 2006 from http://www.umass.edu/preferen/gintis/prosocial.pdf.

Bowrey, K. and Matthew (2005). Rip, Mix, Burn. First Monday, 7(8). Retrieved November 06, 2007 14:36 UTC from http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue7_8/bowrey/.

Boyd, D. (2005a). Academia and Wikipedia. Many2Many. Retrieved January 04, 2005 from http://www.corante.com/many/archives/2005/01/04/academia_and_wikipedia.php.

Boyd, D. (2005b). Wikipedia, academia and Seigenthaler. Many2Many. Retrieved December 17, 2005 from http://www.corante.com/many/archives/2005/12/17/wikipedia_academia_and_seigenthaler.php.

Boyd, D. (2007). Knowledge access as a public good. Britannica Blog: Web 2.0 Forum. Retrieved June 27, 2007 from http://blogs.britannica.com/blog/main/2007/06/knowledge-access-as-a-public-good/.

Briggs, J., Nunamaker, R., Mittleman, D., Vogel, D., and Balthazard, P. (1997). Lessons from a dozen years of group support systems research: a discussion of lab and field findings. Journal of MIS, 13:163–207.

Britannica (1911a). Ku Klux Klan (1911). In Encyclopedia Britannica, volume 17. 170. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Ku_Klux_Klan.

Britannica (1911b). Lynch Law (1911). In Encyclopedia Britannica, volume 15. 943. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Lynch_Law.

Brody, H. (1997). Great expectations: why technology predictions go awry. In Teich, A. H., editor, Technology and the Future, chapter 9. St. Martin’s Press, New York, 7 edition.

Bryant, S. L., Forte, A., and Bruckman, A. (2005). Becoming Wikipedian: transformation of participation in a collaborative online encyclopedia. In Proceedings of the 2005 International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work. ACM, New York. Retrieved February 08, 2007 from http://www-static.cc.gatech.edu/~aforte/BryantForteBruckBecomingWikipedian.pdf.

Bullard, F. (1968). Volcanoes. University of Texas Press, Austin. Retrieved April 03, 2005 from http://volcanology.geol.ucsb.edu/pliny.

Burawoy, M. (1991). Reconstructing social theories. In Ethnography Unbound: Power and Resistance in Modern Metropolis, chapter 2, pages 8–27. University Of California Press, Berkeley.

Buriol, L. S., Castillo, C., Donato, D., Leonardi, S., and Millozzi, S. (2006). Temporal analysis of the wikigraph. In Web Intelligence Conference 2006. Retrieved December 13, 2007 from http://www.dcc.uchile.cl/~ccastill/papers/buriol_2006_temporal_analysis_wikigraph.pdf.

Burke, P. (2000). A social history of knowledge: from Gutenberg to Diderot. Polity Press, Cambridge.

Burrell, G. and Morgan, G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organizational analysis. Heinemann, London.

Bush, V. (1945). As we may think. Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved October 19, 2005 from http://www.ps.uni-sb.de/~duchier/pub/vbush/vbush.shtml.

Capocci, A., Servedio, V. D. P., Colaiori, F., Buriol, L. S., Donato, D., Leonardi, S., and Caldarelli, G. (2006). Preferential attachment in the growth of social networks: The Internet encyclopedia Wikipedia. The American Physical Society, 74(3). Retrieved May 01, 2007 from http://www.inf.ufrgs.br/~buriol/papers/Physical_Review_E_06.pdf.

Carr, N. (2005). The amorality of Web 2.0. Rough Type. Retrieved October 20, 2005 from http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2005/10/the_amorality_o.php.

Carr, N. (2007). Stabbing Polonius. Rough Type. Retrieved April 30, 2007 11:38 UTC from http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2007/04/sanger_1.php.

Celloguy, F. (2005). Re: Blocking proposal. wikien-l. Retrieved October 18, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=BAY114-F237B1A8334738B323C83E4C7710@phx.gbl.

Ceruzzi, P. (1997). An unforseen revolution: computers and expectations, 1935-1985. In Teich, A. H., editor, Technology and the Future, chapter 10. St. Martin’s Press, New York, 7 edition.

Chopra, S. and Dexter, S. (2007). Decoding liberation: the promise of free and open source software. Routledge, New York. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from http://www.sci.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~bcfoss/DL/.

Ciffolilli, A. (2003). Phantom authority, self-selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: the case of Wikipedia. First-Monday, 8(12).

Clark, E. (2005). Frequently Asked Questions. Debian Women. Retrieved January 23, 2007 15:49 UTC from http://women.debian.org/faqs/.

Coffin, J. (2006). Analysis of Open Source principles and diverse collaborative communities. First Monday, 11(6). Retrieved October 02, 2007 from http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue11_6/coffin/index.html.

Coleman, G. (2005). Three ethical moments in Debian: the making of an (ethical) hacker, part III. In the social construction of freedom in free and open source software: actors, ethics, and the liberal tradition. Retrieved September 09, 2005 from http://healthhacker.org/biella/coleman-chapter-six.pdf.

Conservapedia (2007). Examples of Bias in Wikipedia. Conservapedia. Retrieved August 23, 2007 15:30 UTC from http://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Examples_of_Bias_in_Wikipedia&oldid=275527.

Coulon, A. (1995). Ethnomethodology, volume 36 of Qualitative Research Methods. Sage, Thousand Oaks.

Cramton, C. (2001). The mutual knowledge problem and its consequences for dispersed collaboration. Organization Science, 12:346–371.

Cunningham, W. (2005). Wikis then and now. In Keynote at Wikimania 2005. Retrieved August 24, 2007 from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikimania_2005_Presentations#Keynotes.

Darnton, R. (1979). The business of enlightenment: a publishing history of the Encyclope’die. The Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge.

David, S. (2004). Opening the source of accountability. First Monday, 9(11). Retrieved November 11, 2005 from http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_11/david/index.html.

Deetz, S. (1996). Describing differences in approaches to organization science: rethinking Burrell and Morgan and their legacy. Organization Science, 7(2).

Denning, P., Horning, J., Parnas, D., and Weinstein, L. (2005). Inside risks: Wikipedia risks. Communications of the ACM, 48(12):152. Retrieved May 01, 2007 from http://www.csl.sri.com/users/neumann/insiderisks05.html#186.

Derksen, B. (2005). Re: [wikien-l] Re: Article deletion (proposed 1 month hiatus). wikien-l. Retrieved September 13, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=432663FA.20806@shaw.ca.

Derksen, B. (2006). Re: Fwd: Request to mailing list Wikichix-l rejected. wikien-l. Retrieved December 05, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=4575ABC6.50801@shaw.ca.

Devouard, F. (2007). Welcome Mike ! Foundation-l. Retrieved July 24, 2007 19:32 UTC from http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/foundation-l/2007-July/031128.html.

Dewey, M. (2004). A classification and subject index for cataloguing and arranging the books and pamphlets of a library (1876). Project Gutenberg. Retrieved October 19, 2006 from http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12513.

dharma (2004). Agreed. Kuro5hin. Retrieved December 31, 2004 from http://www.kuro5hin.org/story/2004/12/30/142458/25.

Dibona, C., Ockman, S., and Stone, M. (1999). Open Sources: voices from the Open Source revolution. O’Reilly, Cambridge. Retrieved December 10, 2005 from http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/toc.html.

Dickens, D. (2004). The Tale of Two Cities: A community reading project: notes on issue 1: glossary part 2 of 5. Stanford, Standford. Retrieved April 03, 2005 from http://dickens.stanford.edu/archive/tale/issue1_gloss2.html.

DiPierro, A. (2005a). Re: Blocking proposal. wikien-l. Retrieved October 19, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=71cd4dd90510191024r4332fe14tbb075711698d60c0@mail.gmail.com.

DiPierro, A. (2005b). Re: Quality vs. consensus (was: Meanwhile, AfD grinds on). wikien-l. Retrieved October 19, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=71cd4dd90510191648q6c073890t98109ee7efc57f10@mail.gmail.com.

Doctorow, C. (2006). On ”digital Maoism”. Edge. Retrieved June 07, 2006 17:18 UTC from http://www.edge.org/discourse/digital_maoism.html.

Drum, K. (2004). Google and the human spirit: a reply to Michael Gorman. Washington Monthly. Retrieved August 22, 2007 from http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~lesk/spring06/lis553/ala-jan05.txt.

Duguid, P. (2006). Limits of self-organization: peer production and laws of quality. FirstMonday, 11(10). Retrieved October 02, 2007 from http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue11_10/duguid/.

Dyer, S. (1984). Re on the direction of net.motss. net.motss. Retrieved May 02, 2007 from http://groups.google.com/group/net.motss/browse_thread/thread/8da62aa968a3349d/216bcdcffc0aadfe?lnk=st&q=linus+%22benevolent+dictator%22&rnum=26&hl=en#216bcdcffc0aadfe.

Einbinder, H. (1964). The myth of the Britannica. Grove Press, New York.

Eisenstein, E. L. (1993). The printing revolution in early modern Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, canto edition.

Elliott, M. (2006). Stigmergic collaboration: the evolution of group work. M/C Journal, 9(2). Retrieved June 05, 2006 from http://journal.media-culture.org.au/0605/03-elliott.php.

Encarta (2006). Encyclopedia. In Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved October 30, 2006 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761551647_3/Encyclopedia.html.

Encyclopedia, D. (1999). The Distributed Encyclopedia introduction. Retrieved November 03, 2005 from http://web.archive.org/web/19991118223016/members.aol.com/distency/intro.htm.

Engelbart, D. C. (1962). Augmenting human intellect: a conceptual framework. Menlo Park, Ca. Retrieved May 21, 2007 from http://sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite/EngelbartPapers/B5_F18_ConceptFrameworkPt4.html.

Etzioni, A. (1975). Comparative analysis of complex organizations. Free Press of Glencoe, NY, revised edition.

Flanagan, M., Howe, D., and Nissenbaum, H. (2006). Embodying values in technology: theory and practice. In Jeroen van den Hoven, J. W., editor, Information Technology and Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Retrieved March 25, 2006 from http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/papers/Nissenbaum-VID.4-25.pdf.

Fogel, K. (2005). Producing open source software: how to run a successful free software project. Retrieved February 04, 2008 from http://producingoss.com/en/producingoss.html.

Fontaine, H. L. and Otlet, P. (1990). Creation of a universal bibliographic repertory: a preliminary note (1895-1896). In Rayward, W. B., editor, International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge: Selected Essays of Paul Otlet. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Forrester, J. D. (2005). Re: Your golorous [sic] leader. wikien-l. Retrieved April 08, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=200504081652.j38GqMtd009896@mail-relay-2.csv.warwick.ac.uk.

Forte, A. and Bruckman, A. (2005). Why do people write for Wikipedia? Incentives to contribute to open-content publishing. In GROUP workshop: Sustaining community: The role and design of incentive mechanisms in online systems. Retrieved February 08, 2007 from http://www-static.cc.gatech.edu/~aforte/ForteBruckmanWhyPeopleWrite.pdf.

Foucault, M. (1984). What is an author? In Rabinow, P., editor, The Foucault Reader. Pantheon Books, New York.

Foundation, W. (2005). Board of Trustees. Retrieved January 13, 2006 from http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Board_of_Trustees.

Foundation, W. (2006). Resolution CEO. Retrieved June 09, 2006 15:59 UTC from http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Resolution_CEO.

Foundation, W. (2007a). Planet Wikimedia. Retrieved November 08, 2007 18:10 UTC from http://en.planet.wikimedia.org/.

Foundation, W. (2007b). Wikipedia Reaches 2 Million Articles. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved September 13, 2007 17:29 UTC from http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Wikipedia_Reaches_2_Million_Articles.

Fraser, N. (1992). Rethinking the public sphere: a contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy. In Habermas and the public sphere, pages 109–142. The MIT Press, Cambridge.

Freeman, J. (1996). The tyranny of structurelessness: why organisations need some structure to ensure they are democratic (1970). Struggle. Retrieved December 16, 2003 from http://flag.blackened.net/revolt/hist_texts/structurelessness.html.

Friedman, B. and Nissenbaum, H. (1996). Bias in computer systems. ACM Transactions in Information Systems, 14(2):330–346.

froosh (2006). Main Street Meets Madison Avenue, Wall Street and Silicon Valley – what is Wikipedia.org’s valuation? HipMojo.com. Retrieved December 15, 2006 16:50 UTC from http://www.watchmojo.com/web/blog/?p=626.

Galinsky, A. and Mussweiler, T. (2001). First offers as anchors: The role of perspective taking and negotiator focus. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81. Retrieved October 18, 2004 from http://online.psycinfo.com/psycarticles/index.cfm?action=display&uid=2001-18605-008&ftType=HTML&sid=d81c893d-a917-43eb-8a9c-a30a49572ff4.

Garfield, E. (1953). Librarian versus documentalist. Unpublished. Retrieved September 25, 2006 from http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/librarianvsdocumentalisty1953.html.

Garfinkel, H. (1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

Garzarelli, G. and Galoppini, R. (2003). Capability coordination in modular organization: Voluntary FS/OSS production and the case of Debian GNU/Linux. In Economics Working Paper Archive at WUST, number 0312005. Industrial Organization. Retrieved September 03, 2004 from http://opensource.mit.edu/papers/garzarelligaloppini.pdf.

Geertz, C. (1973). Thick description: toward an interpreted theory of culture. In The Interpretation of Cultures and Local Knowledge, chapter 1, pages 3–30. Basic Books, New York,NY, clifford geertz edition.

GeorgeLouis (2006). Wikipedia talk:neutral point of view. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 14, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia_talk:Neutral_point_of_view&oldid=69979085#WikiP.27s_.22Holy_Trinity.22.

Giusca, B. (2006). Re: Fwd: Request to mailing list Wikichix-l rejected. wikien-l. Retrieved December 05, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=281363007.20061205165218@dapyx.com.

Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago.

Godwin, M. (1994a). Meme, Counter-meme. Wired, 2(10). Retrieved August 24, 2006 from http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.10/godwin.if_pr.html.

Godwin, M. (1994b). Nine principles for making virtual communities work. Wired, 2(6). Retrieved September 27, 2007 from http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.06/vc.principles.html.

Goerzen, J. (2006). Who can make binding legal agreements. Retrieved May 25, 2007 18:17 UTC from http://lists.debian.org/debian-devel/2006/06/msg00256.html.

Golden-Biddle, K. and Locke, K. (1993). Appealing work: An investigation of how ethnographic texts convince. Organization Science, 4:595–616. Retrieved March 04, 2005 from http://www.jstor.org/view/10477039/di013150/01p01444/0.

Goldschmidt, R. B. and Otlet, P. (1990). On a new form of the book: the microphotographic book (1906). In Rayward, W. B., editor, International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge: Selected Essays of Paul Otlet. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Gorman, M. (2004). Google and God’s mind: the problem is, information isn’t knowledge. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 22, 2007 from http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~lesk/spring06/lis553/ala-jan05.txt.

Gorman, M. (2005). Revenge of the blog people! Library Journal. Retrieved August 22, 2007 from http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA502009.html.

Gorman, M. (2007a). Jabberwiki: the educational response, part I. Britannica Blog: Web 2.0 Forum. Retrieved June 27, 2007 from http://blogs.britannica.com/blog/main/2007/06/jabberwiki-the-educational-response-part-i/.

Gorman, M. (2007b). Jabberwiki: the educational response, part II. Britannica Blog: Web 2.0 Forum. Retrieved June 27, 2007 from http://blogs.britannica.com/blog/main/2007/06/jabberwiki-the-educational-response-part-ii/.

Gorman, M. (2007c). The siren song of the Internet: part I. Britannica Blog. Retrieved June 29, 2007 from http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2007/06/the-siren-song-of-the-internet-part-i/.

Gorman, M. (2007d). The siren song of the Internet: part II. Britannica Blog. Retrieved June 29, 2007 from http://blogs.britannica.com/blog/main/2007/06/the-siren-song-of-the-internet-part-ii/.

Gorman, M. (2007e). Web 2.0: the sleep of reason, part II. Retrieved June 15, 2007 from http://blogs.britannica.com/blog/main/2007/06/web-20-the-sleep-of-reason-part-ii/.

Gould, S. J. (2000). Deconstructing the ”science wars” by reconstructing an old mold. Science, 287(5451):253–261. Retrieved October 06, 2006 from http://www.stephenjaygould.org/library/gould_science-wars.html.

Gouthro, L. (2000). Building the world’s biggest encyclopedia. CNN. Retrieved October 25, 2005 from http://archives.cnn.com/2000/TECH/computing/03/14/nupedia.idg/.

Gove, P. (1961). Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster.

Graham, P. (2005). Web 2.0. Retrieved September 21, 2007 from http://paulgraham.com/web20.html.

Gray, A. (2005). Re: Librarians, Professors, and Pundits. Wikimedia-l. Retrieved July 22, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=f3fedb0d0507221318227f43c8@mail.gmail.com.

Guardian, T. (2005). In praise of ... the Wikipedia. The Guardian. Retrieved December 09, 2005 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/leaders/story/0,3604,1661567,00.html.

Guettarda (2006a). Re: Fwd: Request to mailing list Wikichix-l rejected. wikien-l. Retrieved December 05, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=47683e960612050629t45577488xdf97707a966de6cb@mail.gmail.com.

Guettarda (2006b). Re: Fwd: Request to mailing list Wikichix-l rejected. wikien-l. Retrieved December 05, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=47683e960612050657s6c91283cr8458565ce1a776b6@mail.gmail.com.

Hafner, K. (2006). Growing Wikipedia Refines Its ”anyone Can Edit” Policy. New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2007 17:31 UTC from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/17/technology/17wiki.html?ei=5070&en=f9a33e0f8c9bd3f3&ex=1180238400&pagewanted=print.

Hart, M. (1992). History and philosophy of Project Gutenberg. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from http://www.gutenberg.org/about/history.

Hart, M. (2006). Historical draft on digital encyclopedias. Private correspondence.

Hawking, S. (2002). On the shoulders of giants: The great works of physics and astronomy. Running Press, Philadelphia.

Headrick, D. (2000). When information came of age. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Retrieved February 04, 2005 from http://books.google.com/books?id=XRBPvOAiQmUC&dq=when+information+came+of+age+technologies+of+knowledge+in+the+age+of.

Hedrick, C. (1992). 386bsd vs Linux. comp.os.linux. Retrieved May 02, 2007 from http://groups.google.com/group/comp.os.linux/browse_thread/thread/cec96498bcd6010a/cebaafdf43eebec7?lnk=gst&q=linus+%22benevolent+dictator%22#cebaafdf43eebec7.

Helm, B. (2005). Wikipedia: ”a Work in Progress”. BusinessWeekonline. Retrieved December 15, 2005 from http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/dec2005/tc20051214_441708.htm?campaign_id=rss_topStories.

Hitchens, H. (2005). Defining the world: the extraordinary story of Dr. Johnson’s dictionary. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York.

Hollander, E. P. (1960). Competence and conformity in the acceptance of influence. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61(3):365369.

holotone (2006). Wikipedia Showdown! grupthink. Retrieved August 03, 2006 10:36 UTC from http://www.grupthink.com/poll/364.

House, H. (2006). The dictionary wars II: Webster vs. Worcester. History House. Retrieved December 22, 2006 from http://www.historyhouse.com/in_history/worcester/.

Howard, R. M. (1999). Standing in the shadow of giants: plagiarists, authors, collaborators. Ablex Publishing Corporation, Stamford.

Jacobs, A. J. (2004). The-know-it-all. Simon and Schuster, New York.

Jacobs, A. J. (2005). Wikiworld: the experiment. Esquire. Retrieved December 16, 2005 from http://www.smartmoney.com/esquire/index.cfm?Story=20051215wikipedia.

Jarvenpaa, S. and Leidner, D. (1999). Communication and trust in global virtual teams. Organization Science, 10(6):791. Retrieved March 13, 2004 from http://hyperion.math.upatras.gr/commorg/jarvenpaa/.

Jashemski, W. F. (1999). Pliny the Younger’s Letters 3.5.7-17 (to Baebius Macer). In A Pompeian herbal. Retrieved March 18, 2005 from http://www.utexas.edu/utpress/excerpts/exjaspom.html.

Jazi, P. (1994). On the author effect: contemporary copyright and collective creativity. In Martha Woodmansee, P. J., editor, The construction of authorship: textual appropriation in law and literature. Duke University Press, Durham.

Jefferson, T. (1813). To Isaac McPherson Monticello. Retrieved December 20, 2007 from http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/P/tj3/writings/brf/jefl220.htm.

Jenkins, H. (1992). Textual poachers: television fans and participatory culture. Routledge, New York.

Jenkins, H. (2006). Confronting the challenges of Participatory Culture: media education for the 21st century. Confessions of an Aca/Fan. Retrieved October 10, 2007 21:28 UTC from http://www.henryjenkins.org/2006/10/confronting_the_challenges_of.html.

Johns, A. (2001). The birth of scientific reading. Nature, 409(287). Retrieved August 22, 2007 from http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v409/n6818/full/409287a0.html.

Johnson, B. K. (2007). Wikipedia as collective action: personal incentives and enabling structures. Retrieved August 23, 2007 from http://www.msu.edu/~john2429/WikipediaasCollectiveAction.pdf.

Kahneman, D. and Tversky, A. (1995). Conflict resolution: A cognitive perspective. In et al., K. A., editor, Barriers to Conflict Resolution, chapter 3. Norton, New York.

Karsai, I. (2004). Self-organization and the origin of complexity. In Matt Young, T. E., editor, Why Intelligent Design Fails, chapter 7. Rutgers University press, New Brunswick.

Keen, A. (2006). Web 2.0: The second generation of the Internet has arrived. It’s worse than you think. The Daily Standard. Retrieved September 15, 2007 19:03 UTC from http://www.weeklystandard.com/Utilities/printer_preview.asp?idArticle=6714&R=1150324B1D.

Keen, A. (2007). The cult of the amateur: how today’s Internet is killing our culture. Doubleday, New York.

Kelly, K. (1995). Out of control: the new biology of machines, social systems and the economic world. Perseus Books Group, Cambridge, reprint edition edition. Retrieved December 22, 1995 from http://www.kk.org/outofcontrol/.

Kelly, K. (2006a). On ”digital Maoism”. Edge. Retrieved June 07, 2006 17:18 UTC from http://www.edge.org/discourse/digital_maoism.html.

Kelly, K. (2006b). Scan this book! What will happen to books? Reader, take heart! Publisher, be very, very afraid. Internet search engines will set them free. A manifesto. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved August 29, 2007 from http://www.kk.org/writings/scan_this_book.php.

Kelty, C. (2005). Geeks, social imaginaries, and recursive publics. Cultural Anthropology, 20(2):185–214. Retrieved September 19, 2005 from http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/pdf/10.1525/can.2005.20.2.185?cookieSet=1.

Kingwell, M. (1995). A civil tongue: justice, dialogue and the politics of pluralism. The Pennsylvania State University Press, Pennsylvania.

Kittur, A., Chi, E., Pendleton, B. A., Suh, B., and Mytkowicz, T. (2007a). Power of the few vs. wisdom of the crowd: Wikipedia and the rise of the bourgeoise. In 25th Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2007). Retrieved May 17, 2007 from http://www.parc.com/research/publications/details.php?id=5904.

Kittur, A., Suh, B., Pendleton, B. A., and Chi, E. H. (2007b). He says, she says: conflict and coordination in Wikipedia. In CHI 2007 Proceedings: Online Representation of Self. ACM. Retrieved November 14, 2007 from http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~echi/papers/2007-CHI/2007-Wikipedia-coordination-PARC-CHI2007.pdf.

Koepp, C. (2002). Making money: artisans and entrepreneurs and Diderot’s Encyclope’die. In Daniel Brewer, J. C. H., editor, Using the Encyclopdie. Voltaire Foundation, Oxford.

Kogan, H. (1958). The great EB: the story of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. The University Of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Kollock, P. (1999). The economies of online cooperation: Gifts and public goods in cyberspace. In Smith, M. and Kollock, P., editors, Communities in Cyberspace. Routledge Press, London. Retrieved November 20, 2004 from http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/soc/faculty/kollock/papers/economies.htm.

Kramer, R. M. and Carnevale, P. J. (2001). Trust and intergroup negotiation. In Brown, R. and Gaertner, S., editors, Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intergroup Relations, pages 431–450. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK.

Krangel, E. (2007). Two attempts at opening up religion online. NewAssignment.Net. Retrieved January 11, 2007 16:33 UTC from http://www.newassignment.net/blog/eric_krangel/jan2007/01/religion_gets_op.

Kriplean, T., Beschastnikh, I., Mcdonald, D. W., and Golder, S. A. (2007). Community, consensus, coercion, control: CS*W or how policy mediates mass participation. In GROUP’07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2007, pages 167–176. ACM. Retrieved December 13, 2007 from http://portal.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=1316648&type=pdf&coll=&dl=GUIDE&CFID=15151515&CFTOKEN=6184618.

Kropotkin, P. (1902). Mutual aid: a factor of evolution. Retrieved December 20, 2007 from http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/kropotkin/mutaidcontents.html.

Krupp, A. (2005). Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds. wikipedia-l. Retrieved May 02, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=4275D17C.6090501@gmail.com.

Krupp, A. (2006). The four webs: Web 2.0, digital identity, and the future of human interaction. Retrieved September 21, 2007 from http://www.alexkrupp.com/fourwebs.html.

Kuznetsov, S. (2006). Motivations of contributors to Wikipedia. In ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society, volume 36. ACM. Retrieved June 05, 2006 from http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1215943.

Lanier, J. (2006). Digital maoism: the hazards of the new online collectivism. Edge. Retrieved June 07, 2006 17:18 UTC from http://www.edge.org/documents/archive/edge183.html.

Lebert, M. (2004). Michael Hart: changing the world through e-books. Project Gutenberg, english edition. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from http://www.gutenberg.org/about/marie_lebert.

Legbagede (2001). A limited company of useful knowledge: Paul Otlet, the International Institute of Bibliography and the Limits of Documentalism. everything2. Retrieved September 29, 2006 from http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1053046.

Lehmann, E. (2006). Rewriting history under the dome. Lowell Sun Online. Retrieved January 30, 2006 from http://www.lowellsun.com/ci_3444567.

Lessig, L. (2004). Free culture. The Penguin Press, NY. Retrieved April 17, 2006 from http://download.nowis.com/index.cfm?phile=FreeCulture.html&tipe=text/html.

Levesque, M. (2004). Fundamental issues with open source software development. FirstMonday, 9(4). Retrieved February 22, 2007 from http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_4/levesque/index.html.

Levina, N. and Vaast, E. (2003). Collaborating across boundaries: boundary objects and spanners in practice. Draft.

Lih, A. (2007). Unwanted: new articles in Wikipedia. Retrieved August 27, 2007 12:20 UTC from http://www.andrewlih.com/blog/2007/07/10/unwanted-new-articles-in-wikipedia/.

Lincoln, A. (1861). First Inaugural Address. Retrieved November 14, 2007 from http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres31.html.

Lio, E. D., Fraboni, L., and Leo, T. (2005). TWiki-based facilitation in a newly formed academic community of practice. In WikiSym ’05. ACM. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from http://www.wikisym.org/ws2005/proceedings/paper-09.pdf.

Lois, J. (1999). Socialization to heroism: individualism and collectivism in a voluntary search and rescue group. Social Psychology Quarterly, 62(2):117–135.

Lottieri, C. (2005). Vatican City as a free society: legal order and political theology. Ludwig von Mises Institute Working Papers.

Maack, M. N. (2004). The lady and the antelope: Suzanne Briet’s contribution to the french documentation movement. Library Trends, 52(4):719–747. Retrieved December 07, 2006 from http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/maack/BrietPrePress.htm.

Mann, T. (2007). Brave new (digital) world, part ii: foolishness 2.0? Britannica Blog: Web 2.0 Forum. Retrieved June 27, 2007 from http://blogs.britannica.com/blog/main/2007/06/brave-new-digital-world-part-ii-foolishness-20/.

Martin, K. (2007a). An example of transparency. Nonbovine Ruminations. Retrieved June 19, 2007 19:54 UTC from http://nonbovine-ruminations.blogspot.com/2007/06/example-of-transparency.html.

Martin, K. (2007b). Re: Lock new article creation for three months. wikien-l. Retrieved March 31, 2007 from http://marc.info/?i=bd4c411e0703311358k2705cc2ai759d6461297adf36@mail.gmail.com.

McArthur, T. (1986). Worlds of reference: lexicography, learning, and language from the clay tablet to the computer. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

McCabe, J. (1947). The lies and fallacies of the Encyclopaedia Britannica: how powerful and shameless clerical forces castrated a famous work of reference. Haldeman-Julius Publications, Girard Kansas. Retrieved April 07, 2006 from http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/joseph_mccabe/lies_of_britannica.html.

McCabe, J. (1951). The Columbia Encyclopedia’s crimes against the truth. Haldeman-Julius Publications, Girard Kansas. Retrieved April 07, 2006 from http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/joseph_mccabe/encyclopedia_crime.html.

McCarthy, M. (1999). It’s not true about Caligula’s horse; Britannica checked — dogged researchers answer some remarkable queries. Wall Street Journal, page A1.

McHenry, R. (2007). Web 2.0: Hope or Hype? Britannica Blog: Web 2.0 Forum. Retrieved June 27, 2007 from http://blogs.britannica.com/blog/main/2007/06/web-20-hope-or-hype/.

McIlwaine, I. C. (2006). Notes & Queries. UDC Consortium. Retrieved October 19, 2006 from http://www.udcc.org/notes.htm.

McKillop, A. B. (2002). The spinster and the prophet. 4 Walls 8 Windows, New York.

Mclemee, S. (2007). Mass Culture 2.0. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved June 27, 2007 from http://insidehighered.com/views/2007/06/20/mclemee.

Meadows, A. J. (1990). Theory in information science. Journal of Information Science, 16(1):5963. Retrieved October 18, 2005 from http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=81696&jmp=cit&coll=GUIDE&dl=GUIDE&CFID=1666002&CFTOKEN=44729879#CIT.

Meatball (2006a). Assumegoodfaith. MeatballWiki. Retrieved February 08, 2007 from http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?AssumeGoodFaith.

Meatball (2006b). Meatballbackgrounder. Meatball Wiki. Retrieved April 12, 2006 16:35 UTC from http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?MeatballBackgrounder.

Meatball (2007a). Fairprocess. Meatball Wiki. Retrieved November 09, 2007 18:04 UTC from http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?FairProcess.

Meatball (2007b). Godking. Retrieved November 02, 2007 14:31 UTC from http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?GodKing.

Meatball (2007c). Righttofork. Meatball. Retrieved October 11, 2007 17:12 UTC from http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?RightToFork.

Merton, R. K. (1993). On the shoulders of giants. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Michels, R. (2001). Political Parties (1911). Batoche Books, Ontario. Retrieved December 04, 2007 from http://socserv.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/michels/polipart.pdf.

Millosh (2007). Aggregated aggregators. millosh’blog. Retrieved November 08, 2007 18:10 UTC from http://millosh.wordpress.com/2007/10/01/aggregated-aggregators/.

Moeller, E. (2005). Re: [[talk:autofellatio]] - Poll. wikien-l. Retrieved February 13, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=420F062F.50805@gmx.de.

Moeller, E. (2006a). Indefinite block and desysopping by User:Danny. wikien-l. Retrieved April 19, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=b80736c80604191156y3ba64470vab33c6fb0d513a1d@mail.gmail.com.

Moeller, E. (2006b). Re: ”good authors”. wikien-l. Retrieved June 25, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=b80736c80606251525oe0ffccdyc32f7fd9e52d6d45@mail.gmail.com.

Moeller, E. (2007a). quality.wikimedia.org and wikiquality-l launched. Wikimedia. Retrieved September 18, 2007 12:48 UTC from http://marc.info/?i=b80736c80709171358g6fd70693wadd14047e739a69f@mail.gmail.com.

Moeller, E. (2007b). Rename admins to janitors. wikien-l. Retrieved March 06, 2007 from http://marc.info/?i=b80736c80703060517k56dfabadg2e9f9bf3720cb3a9@mail.gmail.com.

Momigliano, A. and Cornell, T. J. (2003). patrum auctoritas. In Simon Hornblower, A. S., editor, The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved February 09, 2007 from http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t111.e4793.

Mommsen, W. J. (1992). The political and social theory of Max Weber: collected essays. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Montiel-Overall, P. (2005). Toward a theory of collaboration for teachers and librarians. American Library Association, 8. Retrieved February 27, 2006 from http://www.ala.org/ala/aasl/aaslpubsandjournals/slmrb/slmrcontents/volume82005/theory.htm.

Morton, H. C. (1994). The story of Webster’s Third: Philip Gove’s controversial dictionary and its critics. Cambridge University Press, USA.

Muddiman, D. (1998). The universal library as modern utopia: the information society of H. G. Wells. Library History, 14.

Mugglestone, L. (2000). Lexicography and the OED: pioneers in the untrodden forest. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Nagel, T. (1979). The fragmentation of value. In Mortal Questions, pages 128–141. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Nelson, R. (1992). patchlevel 6. comp.os.linux. Retrieved May 02, 2007 from http://groups.google.com/group/comp.os.linux/browse_thread/thread/f31353d1773d2932/b6d0fcacd2475169?lnk=st&q=linus+%22benevolent+dictator%22&rnum=21&hl=en#b6d0fcacd2475169.

Nisbett, R. and Ross, L. (1980). Human inference. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Nissenbaum, H. (1996). Accountability in a computerized society. Science and Engineering Ethics, 2(2):2542. Retrieved November 04, 2006 from http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/papers/accountability.pdf.

Nissenbaum, H. (2001). How computer systems embody values. Computer, 34(3):120–118. Retrieved March 01, 2004 from http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/papers/embodyvalues.pdf.

Novick, P. (1988). The noble dream: the ”objectivity question” and the American historical profession. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

NSK (2005). Re: Flags. wikipedia-l. Retrieved January 10, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=200501101748.06696.nsk2@wikinerds.org.

Nupedia (2000). Nupedia.com editorial policy guidelines. 3.31. Retrieved October 24, 2005 from http://web.archive.org/web/20010410002647/www.nupedia.com/policy.shtml.

Oglesby, T. K. (1903). Some truths of history: a vindication of the South against the Encyclopedia Britannica and other maligners. The Byrd Printing Company, Atlanta. Retrieved September 28, 2007 from http://books.google.com/books?id=pdx3tYFQ2PYC&dq=oglesby+thaddeus+britannica&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=_bzZ9Q4DqL&sig=bVnz7M83mrb4lzhVenkrccEBc3A.

O’Mahony, S. and Ferraro, F. (2003). Managing the boundary of an ’open’ project. Retrieved December 05, 2003 from http://opensource.mit.edu/papers/omahonyferraro.pdf.

O’Mahony, S. and Ferraro, F. (2004). Hacking alone? The effects of all online and offline participation or an open-source community leadership. Retrieved January 13, 2006 from http://opensource.mit.edu/papers/omahonyferraro2.pdf.

O’Mahony, S. and Ferraro, F. (2007). Governance in production communities. Retrieved June 15, 2007 from http://www.business.ualberta.ca/tcc/documents/TII_3_OMahoney_Ferraro_final.pdf.

Onion, T. (2005). Congress Abandons WikiConstitution. The Onion, 41(39). Retrieved October 08, 2005 from http://www.theonion.com/content/node/40990.

Onion, T. (2006). Wikipedia celebrates 750 years of American independence. The Onion. Retrieved July 28, 2006 17:56 UTC from http://www.theonion.com/content/node/50902.

Open (2007). Open Wiki Blog Planet. Retrieved November 08, 2007 18:10 UTC from http://open.wikiblogplanet.com/.

O’Reilly, T. (2005). What is Web 2.0? Design patterns and business models of the next generation of software. O’Reilly. Retrieved September 21, 2007 from http://www.oreillynet.com/lpt/a/6228.

O’Reilly, T. (2006). Web 2.0 Compact Definition: Trying Again. Retrieved August 28, 2007 15:00 UTC from http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2006/12/web_20_compact.html.

Orlowski, A. (2005a). There’s no Wikipedia entry for ’moral responsibility’. The Register. Retrieved December 13, 2005 from http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/12/12/wikipedia_no_responsibility/.

Orlowski, A. (2005b). Wikipedia founder admits to serious quality problems. The Register. Retrieved October 20, 2005 from http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/10/18/wikipedia_quality_problem/.

Ortega, F. and Gonzalez-Barahona, J. (2007). Quantitative analysis of the Wikipedia community of users. In WikiSym ’07. ACM. Retrieved December 13, 2007 from http://www.wikisym.org/_publish/Ortega_WikiSym2007_WikipediaQuantitativeAnalysis.pdf.

Ortega, F. and Gonzalez-Barahona, J. (2008). On the inequality of contributions to Wikipedia. In Proceedings of the 41st Hawaiian International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2008). Retrieved December 13, 2007 from http://libresoft.es/downloads/Ineq_Wikipedia.pdf.

orthogonal (2006). Snowspinner muses about stalking and murder. The Wikipedia Review. Retrieved May 22, 2006 18:51 UTC from http://wikipediareview.com/index.php?showtopic=1116.

OSI (2006a). History of the OSI. OSI. Retrieved November 07, 2007 from http://www.opensource.org/history.

OSI (2006b). The Open Source definition. 1.9. Retrieved November 07, 2007 from http://www.opensource.org/docs/definition.php.

Otlet, P. (1989). Trait de documentation. Le livre sur le livre: thorie et pratique (1934). Centre de Lecture publique de la Communaut franaise, Lige, reprint edition. Retrieved October 19, 2006 from https://archive.ugent.be/handle/1854/5612?mode=full.

Otlet, P. (1990a). The science of bibliography and documentation (1903). In Rayward, W. B., editor, International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge: Selected Essays of Paul Otlet. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Otlet, P. (1990b). Something about bibliography (1891-1892). In Rayward, W. B., editor, International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge: Selected Essays of Paul Otlet. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Otlet, P. (1990c). Transformations in the bibliographical apparatus of the sciences (1918). In Rayward, W. B., editor, International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge: Selected Essays of Paul Otlet. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

PeopleProjectsAndPatterns (2007). Wikipedia. Cunningham & Cunningham. Retrieved September 21, 2007 from http://www.c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiPedia.

Pfaffenberger, B. (1996). ”if I want it, it’s okay”: Usenet and the (outer) limits of free speech. The Information Society, pages 365–386. Retrieved November 05, 2005 from http://pfaff.sts.virginia.edu/bphome/docs/pdf/usenet.pdf.

Pink, D. H. (2005). The book stops here. Wired, 13(3). Retrieved March 01, 2005 from http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.03/wiki_pr.html.

Poe, M. (2006). The hive: can thousands of Wikipedians be wrong? How an attempt to build an online encyclopedia touched off historys biggest experiment in collaborative knowledge. The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved August 14, 2006 from http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/print/200609/wikipedia.

Pollard, D. (2005). Will that be coordination, cooperation, or collaboration? How to Save the World. Retrieved February 27, 2006 from http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/03/25.html.

Posner, R. A. (2007). The little book of plagiarism. Pantheon Books, New York.

Post, D. G. (2001). ”the Free Use of our Faculties”: Jefferson, Cyberspace, and the language of social life. Retrieved April 03, 2005 from http://www.temple.edu/lawschool/dpost/Faculties.html.

Preece, J. (2004). Etiquette, empathy and trust in communities of practice: stepping-stones to social capital. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 10(3). Retrieved May 16, 2005 from http://computing.breinestorm.net/online+etiquette+capital+communities+social/.

Preece, J. and Ghozati, K. (2001). Experiencing empathy online. In Rice, R. R. and Katz, J. E., editors, The Internet and Health Communication: Experience and Expectations, pages 237–260. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Press, A. (2005). Author of false Wikipedia entry apologizes: Tennessee man says false entry on Seigenthaler part of joke on co-worker. MSNBC. Retrieved December 12, 2005 from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/10439120/.

Priedhorsky, R., Chen, J., Lam, S., Panciera, K., Terveen, L., and Riedl, J. (2007). Creating, destroying, and restoring value in Wikipedia. In Proceedings of GROUP 2007. Retrieved October 10, 2007 from http://www.cs.umn.edu/~reid/papers/group282-priedhorsky.pdf.

Prodromou, E. (2007). Your paper and presentation at WikiSym. (1193147885.6121.35.camel@bear).

Project, U.-W. (2006). Ubuntu Women. Ubuntu-Women Project. Retrieved January 23, 2007 16:15 UTC from http://ubuntu-women.org/.

Proofreaders, D. (2004). Beginning proofreaders’ Frequently Asked Questions. Project Gutenberg’s Distributed Proofreaders. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from http://www.pgdp.net/c/faq/ProoferFAQ.php.

Proofreaders, D. (2005). Distributed Proofreaders Update. Distributed Proofreaders. Retrieved November 03, 2005 from http://www.gutenberg.org/newsletter/dp/index.php?article=2004_10_19.html.

Quiggin, J. (2006). Wikipedia and sausages. Out Of the Crooked Timer. Retrieved March 01, 2006 from http://crookedtimber.org/2006/03/01/wikipedia-and-sausages/.

Rafaeli, S., Hayat, T., and Ariel, Y. (2005). Wikipedians’ sense of community, motivations, and knowledge building: a cross-cultural study. In Proceedings of Wikimania 2005. Retrieved September 01, 2005 from http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Transwiki:Wikimania05/Paper-YA1.

Raymond, E. (1997). The cathedral and the bazaar. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar.

Raymond, E. (1998). Homesteading the Noosphere. First Monday, 3(10). Retrieved December 13, 2004 from http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue3_10/raymond/index.html.

Rayward, W. B. (1975). The universe of information. The work of Paul Otlet for documentation and international organisation. International Federation of Documentation (FID). Retrieved October 19, 2006 from https://archive.ugent.be/handle/1854/3989.

Rayward, W. B. (1991). The case of Paul Otlet, pioneer of information science, internationalist, visionary: reflections on biography. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 23:135–145. Retrieved September 20, 2006 from http://people.lis.uiuc.edu/~wrayward/otlet/PAUL_OTLET_REFLECTIONS_ON_BIOG.HTM.

Rayward, W. B. (1994). Visions of Xanadu: Paul Otlet (1868-1944) and hypertext. JASIS, 45:235–250. Retrieved February 21, 2006 from http://people.lis.uiuc.edu/~wrayward/otlet/xanadu.htm.

Rayward, W. B. (1997a). The origins of information science and the International Institute of Bibliography. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 48:289–300.

Rayward, W. B. (1997b). Paul Otlet and his successors the origins of Information Science and the International Institute of Bibliography/International Federation for Information and Documentation (fid). Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 48:289–300. Retrieved October 19, 2006 from http://people.lis.uiuc.edu/~wrayward/otlet/OriginsofInfoSci.htm.

Rayward, W. B. (1999). H.G. Wells’s idea of a World Brain: a critical reassessment. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50:575–579. Retrieved September 20, 2006 from http://people.lis.uiuc.edu/~wrayward/Wellss_Idea_of_World_Brain.htm.

Reagle, J. (1999). Internet quotation appendix. Working draft, Berkman Center for Internet and Society, Harvard Law School. Retrieved December 20, 2007 from http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/reagle/inet-quotations-19990709.html.

Reagle, J. (2004). Open content communities. M/C: A Journal of Media and Culture, 7. Retrieved July 01, 2004 from http://journal.media-culture.org.au/0406/06_Reagle.rft.php.

Reagle, J. (2005a). A case of mutual aid: Wikipedia, politeness, and perspective taking. In Proceedings of Wikimania 2005. Retrieved April 01, 2005 from https://reagle.org/joseph/2004/agree/wikip-agree.

Reagle, J. (2005b). Four short stories about the reference work. Retrieved January 12, 2007 from https://reagle.org/joseph/2005/refs/4-themes.html.

Reagle, J. (2005c). Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds. wikipedia-l. Retrieved May 02, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=200505021001.55859.reagle@mit.edu.

Reagle, J. (2005d). Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds. wikipedia-l. Retrieved May 02, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=200505021101.11598.reagle@mit.edu.

Reagle, J. (2005e). Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds. wikipedia-l. Retrieved May 04, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=200505040924.52194.reagle@mit.edu.

Reagle, J. (2006a). Is the Wikipedia neutral? In Proceedings of Wikimania 2006. Retrieved August 01, 2006 from http://wikimania2006.wikimedia.org/wiki/Presenters/Joseph_Reagle.

Reagle, J. (2006b). Notions of openness. In FM10 Openness: Code, Science, and Content: Selected Papers from the First Monday Conference, volume 11. Retrieved December 20, 2007 from https://reagle.org/joseph/2006/02/fm10-openness.

Reagle, J. (2006c). Open communities and closed law. In Lipika Bansal, Paul Keller, G. L., editor, In the Shade of the Commons -Towards a Culture of Open Networks, pages 165–1677. Waag Society Amsterdam. Retrieved January 23, 2007 from https://reagle.org/joseph/2006/10/10-open-community-closed-law.

Reagle, J. (2007a). Do as I do: authorial leadership in Wikipedia. In WikiSym ’07: Proceedings of the 2007 international symposium on Wikis. ACM Press, New York, NY, USA. Retrieved December 20, 2007 from http://ws2007.wikisym.org/space/ReaglePaper.

Reagle, J. (2007b). Equality, gender, and speech in open communities. Re-public. Retrieved April 20, 2007 from http://www.re-public.gr/en/?p=131.

Reagle, J. (2007c). Method. In Open Codex. Retrieved November 21, 2007 from https://reagle.org/joseph/blog/method/index.html.

Reed Jr., J. W. (1962). Noah Webster’s debt to Samuel Johnson. American Speech, 37(2):95–105. Retrieved August 23, 2007 from http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-1283(196205)37%3A2%3C95%3ANWDTSJ%3E2.0.CO%3B2-4.

Reinhardt, C. (2003). Collaborative knowledge creation in virtual communities of practice. In Masters of Social and Economic Sciences. Department of Value-Prcoess Management, Marketing University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck.

Reynolds, G. (2006). An army of Davids: how markets and technology empower ordinary people to beat big media, big government, and other goliaths. Nelson Current, Nashville.

Rheingold, H. (2002). Smart mobs. Perseuss Publishing, Cambridge, Mass.

Rick (2005). Re: Re: Writing about sexual topics responsibly is not. wikien-l. Retrieved February 14, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=20050214062541.66792.qmail@web60609.mail.yahoo.com.

Rockwell, G. (1999). Diderot and hypertext; dreaming the circle of knowledge. McMaster Association for 18th-Century Studies. Retrieved July 26, 2005 from http://www.google.com/url?sa=U&start=1&q=http://www.geoffreyrockwell.com/publications/Diderot.Hypertext.pdf&e=747.

Ronline (2006). The Wikipedia Ombudsman. wikien-l. Retrieved January 07, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=648f108b0601070134l616eb900u4f97b75522540e0f@mail.gmail.com.

Rosenberg, S. (2007). Dreaming in code: two dozen programmers, three years, 4732 bugs, and one quest for transcendent software. Crown Publishers, New York.

Roth, C. (2007). Viable wikis: struggle for life in the wikisphere. In WikiSym ’07. ACM. Retrieved December 13, 2007 from http://www.wikisym.org/ws2007/_publish/Roth_WikiSym2007_ViableWikis.pdf.

Rushkoff, D. (2003). Open Source Democracy: How online communication is changing offline politics. Demos. Retrieved April 17, 2006 from http://www.demos.co.uk/opensourcedemocracy_pdf_media_public.aspx.

Sahlins, M. (2004). Apologies to Thucydides: understanding history as culture and vice versa. The University Of Chicago Press, Chicago. Retrieved April 17, 2006 from http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/734005.html.

Saintonge, R. (2005). Re: Wikimedia Foundation Internal Radio. wikipedia-l. Retrieved April 12, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=425C3FB4.2070401@telus.net.

Sandifer, P. (2006). I’ve Kicked the Process Habit. wikien-l. Retrieved September 16, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=A9F21CA7-852B-4684-AA83-0F759F8DDFBA@gmail.com.

Sanger, L. (2000a). 602 members. nupedia-l. Retrieved June 07, 2006 from http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-March/000022.html.

Sanger, L. (2000b). Epistemic Circularity. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from http://enlightenment.supersaturated.com/essays/text/larrysanger/diss/preamble.html.

Sanger, L. (2000c). I am a clueless newbie. nupedia-l. Retrieved June 07, 2006 from http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-March/000003.html.

Sanger, L. (2000d). Introduction. nupedia-l. Retrieved June 07, 2006 from http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-April/000143.html.

Sanger, L. (2000e). Re: Nupedia: Questions. nupedia-l. Retrieved June 07, 2006 from http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-March/000006.html.

Sanger, L. (2001a). Britannica or Nupedia? The future of free encyclopedias. Kuro5hin. Retrieved June 06, 2006 from http://www.kuro5hin.org/story/2001/7/25/103136/121.

Sanger, L. (2001b). Interpedia is dead–long live Wikipedia. comp.infosystems.interpedia. Retrieved November 03, 2005 from http://groups.google.com/group/comp.infosystems.interpedia/browse_thread/thread/d0eef272f840b9c2/bb038fa078a1bf8d?lnk=st&q=group:⋆interpedia⋆&rnum=17&hl=en#bb038fa078a1bf8d.

Sanger, L. (2001c). Let’s make a wiki. Nupedia. Retrieved November 15, 2005 from http://web.archive.org/web/20030414014355/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2001-January/000676.html.

Sanger, L. (2001d). Re: Admins (i suspect LMS) permanently deleting things. wikipedia-l. Retrieved November 04, 2001 from http://marc.info/?l=wikipedia-l&m=104216623606507&w=2.

Sanger, L. (2001e). Wikipedia is now useful! Wikipedia. Retrieved November 15, 2005 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Announcements_June_2001.

Sanger, L. (2005a). The early history of Nupedia and Wikipedia: a memoir. Slashdot. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from http://features.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=05/04/18/164213&from=rss.

Sanger, L. (2005b). Why collaborative free works should be protected by the law. Slashdot. Retrieved December 07, 2005 from http://slashdot.org/~LarrySanger/journal/123625.

Sanger, L. (2006a). Text and collaboration, part I. Kuro5hin. Retrieved June 08, 2006 from http://www.kuro5hin.org/story/2006/5/26/162017/011.

Sanger, L. (2006b). Toward a new compendium of knowledge. Citizendium. Retrieved December 20, 2007 from http://citizendium.org/essay.html.

Sanger, L. (2007a). How’s the unforking going? Citizendium Forums. Retrieved November 09, 2007 18:38 UTC from http://forum.citizendium.org/index.php?topic=459.30;wap2.

Sanger, L. (2007b). Our gift to the world: CC-by-sa. Citizendium Blog. Retrieved March 20, 2008 14:02 UTC from http://blog.citizendium.org/2007/12/21/our-gift-to-the-world-cc-by-sa/.

Sarno, D. (2007). Wikipedia wars erupt. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 02, 2007 17:23 UTC from http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/la-ca-webscout30sep30,0,344107.story?coll=la-home-center.

Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, 2nd edition.

Schein, E. H. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. John Whiley & Sons, San Francisco, 3rd edition.

Schiff, S. (2006). Know it all: can Wikipedia conquer expertise? The New Yorker. Retrieved August 16, 2006 from http://www.newyorker.com/printables/fact/060731fa_fact.

Schon, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. Basic Books, New York.

Schroer, J. and Hertel, G. (2007). Voluntary engagement in an open web-based encyclopedia: Wikipedians, and why they do it. Retrieved August 22, 2007 from http://opensource.mit.edu/papers/Schroer_Hertel_Wikipedia_Motivation.pdf.

Schwab, R. N. (1963). Introduction. In Schwab, R. N. and Rex, W. E., editors, Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot. ITT Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis.

Seigenthaler, J. (2005). A false Wikipedia ’biography’. USA Today. Retrieved December 01, 2005 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2005-11-29-wikipedia-edit_x.htm.

Service, O. W. (1995). Objectivism-related e-mail lists. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from http://rous.redbarn.org/objectivism/mail-lists.html.

Shannon, P. (2000). Regarding Sanger and Shannon’s Review of Y2K News Reports. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from http://www.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id=002I9H.

Shannon, R. (2005). Re: Re: How to join the cabal. wikien-l. Retrieved January 03, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=623d733805010301457eace82c@mail.gmail.com.

Shapin, S. (1994). A social history of truth: civility and the science in seventeenth-century England. The University Of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Sheeran, M. (1996). Beyond majority rule: voteless decisions in the Religious Society of Friends. Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.

Shimo, A. (2006). Prolific Canadian is king of Wikipedia. globeandmail.com. Retrieved August 07, 2006 17:41 UTC from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20060804.wxwiki04/BNStory/Technology/?page=rss&id=RTGAM.20060804.wxwiki04.

Shirky, C. (2003a). A group is its own worst enemy. In O’Reilly Emerging Technology Conference. Retrieved June 27, 2007 from http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_enemy.html.

Shirky, C. (2003b). Wikis, grafitti, and process. Many-to-Many. Retrieved August 22, 2006 20:30 UTC from http://many.corante.com/20030801.shtml#50187.

Shirky, C. (2005). Wikipedia: me on Boyd on Sanger on Wales. Many2Many. Retrieved January 05, 2005 from http://www.corante.com/many/archives/2005/01/05/wikipedia_me_on_boyd_on_sanger_on_wales.php.

Shirky, C. (2006). News of Wikipedia’s death greatly exaggerated. Many-to-Many. Retrieved May 25, 2006 17:30 UTC from http://many.corante.com/archives/2006/05/25/news_of_wikipedias_death_greatly_exaggerated.php.

Shirky, C. (2007a). Gorman, redux: the siren song of the Internet. Retrieved June 29, 2007 from http://many.corante.com/archives/2007/06/20/gorman_redux_the_siren_song_of_the_internet.php.

Shirky, C. (2007b). Old revolutions good, new revolutions bad: a response to Gorman. Many2Many. Retrieved June 15, 2007 from http://many.corante.com/archives/2007/06/13/old_revolutions_good_new_revolutions_bad_a_response_to_gorman.php.

Sj (2005). Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds. wikipedia-l. Retrieved May 03, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=742dfd06050503151938d6ec8f@mail.gmail.com.

SlimVirgin (2005). Re: Original Research versus Point of View,. wikien-l. Retrieved January 18, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=4cc603b0501181558569cb84f@mail.gmail.com.

Smith, M. (1994). Social science in the crucible: the American debate over objectivity and purpose, 1918 – 1941. Duke University Press, Durham.

Sproull, L. (2003). Online communities. In The Internet Encyclopedia, pages 733–744. John Wiley, New York, hossein bidgoli (ed.) edition.

Sproull, L., Conley, C. A., and Moon, J. Y. (2004). Prosocial behavior on the Net. In Amichahi-Hamburger, Y., editor, The Social Net: the Social Psychology of the Internet. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Stalder, F. (2006). On the differences between open source and open culture. In Media Mutandis: a NODE.London Reader. Retrieved June 05, 2006 from http://publication.nodel.org/On-the-Differences.

Stallman, R. (1999). The free universal encyclopedia and learning resource. FSF. Retrieved October 11, 2005 from http://www.gnu.org/encyclopedia/free-encyclopedia.html.

Stallman, R. (2005a). Bill Gates and other communists. CNET News.com. Retrieved September 15, 2007 19:16 UTC from http://www.news.com/Bill+Gates+and+other+communists/2010-1071_3-5576230.html.

Stallman, R. (2005b). Historical draft on digital encyclopedias. Private correspondence.

Stallman, R. (2005c). Pigdog Interviews Richard Stallman. GNUisance. Retrieved September 15, 2007 19:16 UTC from http://www.pigdog.org/interviews/stallman/interview_with_stallman3.html.

Stallman, R. (2005d). Wale’s explaination of the Stallman incident. wikipedia-l. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=wikipedia-l&m=113042306304247.

Stallman, R. M. (2005e). The Free Software definition. GNU. Retrieved April 05, 2006 from http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html.

Stallman, R. M. (2005f). The GNU Project. GNU. Retrieved April 05, 2006 from http://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html.

Sterling, B. (2002). A contrarian view of Open Source (august 3). Retrieved February 22, 2007 from http://www.viridiandesign.org/notes/301-350/00325_open_source_speech.html.

Stockwell, F. (2001). A history of information storage and retrieval. Macfarlane, Jefferson, North Carolina.

Suarez, A. and Ruiz, J. (2005). The Spanish fork of Wikipedia. In Proceedings of Wikimania. Retrieved September 01, 2005 from http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Transwiki:Wikimania05/Paper-AS1.

Sunstein, C. (2006). Infotopia: how many minds produce knowledge. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Retrieved September 27, 2007 from http://books.google.com/books?id=2LW1-5E7jsQC.

Sunstein, C. R. (2003). Why societies need dissent. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Surowiecki, J. (2004). The wisdom of crowds. Doubleday, USA.

Swartz, A. (2006). Who writes Wikipedia? Aaron Swartz’s Raw Thought. Retrieved September 04, 2006 13:37 UTC from http://www.aaronsw.com/weblog/whowriteswikipedia.

Tapscott, D. and Williams, A. D. (2006). Wikinomics: how mass collaboration changes everything. portfolio, New York.

Tavris, C. and Aronson, E. (2007). Mistakes were made but not by me: why we justify foolish beliefs, bad decisions, and hurtful acts. Harcourt, New York.

Thieme, C. (2007). Incivility, re: psychosis. wikien-l. Retrieved January 15, 2007 from http://marc.info/?i=b9bebe7a0701151206n42ebdbccse91c90af62c6ea98@mail.gmail.com.

Thomas, G. (1992). A position to command respect: women and the Eleventh Britannica. The Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, New Jersey.

Tivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 46(1):35–57.

Tobias, D. R. (2006). I Am the Very Model of a Modern Wikipedian. wikien-l. Retrieved October 08, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=45282D0D.27600.830BAC1@dan.tobias.name.

van Kalken, W. (2006). Re: Secret admin list. wikipedia-l. Retrieved May 19, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=446E5989.9070807@vankalken.net.

van Maanen, J. (1988). Tales of the field: on writing ethnography. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Vesperman, J. and Richardson, D. (2002). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved January 23, 2007 16:15 UTC from http://www.linuxchix.org/content/docs/faqs/.

Viegas, F. B., Wattenberg, M., , and Mckeon, M. M. (2007). The hidden order of Wikipedia. Proceedings of HCII 2007, pages 445–454. Retrieved October 02, 2007 from http://researchweb.watson.ibm.com/visual/papers/hidden_order_wikipedia.pdf.

von Hippel, E. and von Krogh, G. (2003). Open source software, the ’private-collective’ innovation model. Issues For Organization Science, 14(2):209.

von Krogh, G. (1998). Care in knowledge creation. California Management Review, 40(3).

Voss, J. (2005). Measuring Wikipedia. In Proceedings of the ISSI 2005 Conference. Retrieved March 01, 2006 from http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00003610/.

Vroom, V. H. and Yetton, P. W. (1973). Leadership and decision-making. University Of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh.

Wagstaff, J. (2005). The New Cliche: ”It’s the Wikipedia of...”. loose wire. Retrieved October 02, 2005 from http://loosewire.typepad.com/blog/2005/09/the_new_cliche_.html.

Waguespack, D. and Fleming, L. (2004). Penguins, camels, and other birds of the feather: the emergence of leaders in the Open Innovation Communities. Retrieved January 28, 2004 from http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/elf/ECON222/WaguespackFleming.pdf.

Waguespack, D. and Fleming, L. (2005). Penguins, camels, and other birds of a feather: brokerage, boundary spanning, and leadership in Open Innovation Communities. Retrieved January 13, 2006 from http://opensource.mit.edu/papers/flemingwaguespack.pdf.

Wales, J. (2000a). Hi... nupedia-l. Retrieved June 07, 2006 from http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-March/000009.html.

Wales, J. (2000b). Re: bias. nupedia-l. Retrieved December 07, 2006 from http://web.archive.org/web/20030822044803/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2000-May/000343.html.

Wales, J. (2001a). A culture of co-operation. wikipedia-l. Retrieved August 23, 2005 from http://marc.info/?l=wikipedia-l&m=104216623606518&w=2.

Wales, J. (2001b). Re: A proposal for the new software. wikipedia-l. Retrieved March 07, 2007 from http://marc.info/?l=wikipedia-l&m=104216623606384&w=2.

Wales, J. (2001c). Statement of principles. Nostalgia Wikipedia. Retrieved March 20, 2007 20:08 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Jimbo_Wales/Statement_of_principles&oldid=89244123.

Wales, J. (2001d). Why I oppose a cabal. Nostalgia Wikipedia. Retrieved March 07, 2008 22:01 UTC from http://nostalgia.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jimbo_Wales/Why_I_oppose_a_cabal&oldid=24911.

Wales, J. (2001e). Will The Real Nupedia Please Stand Up? Slashdot. Retrieved October 25, 2005 from http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=10074&cid=494316.

Wales, J. (2004). Re: Request for new Wikipedia: Friulian. wikipedia-l. Retrieved November 04, 2004 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=20041104204518.GE24033@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2005a). Re: Ant: Serbo-Croatian Wikipedia - a policy question? wikipedia-l. Retrieved October 16, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=43524BFD.9000501@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2005b). Re: Neo-nazis to attack wikipedia. wikien-l. Retrieved February 07, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=20050207162911.GO29080@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2005c). Re: Re: A neo-nazi wikipedia. wikien-l. Retrieved August 27, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=4310D2CB.1060401@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2005d). Re: Re: Static HTML dumps. wikipedia-l. Retrieved October 18, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=wikipedia-l&m=112961483513485&w=2.

Wales, J. (2005e). Re: Sanger’s memoirs. Wikipedia. Retrieved November 15, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=4265EB8D.7020607@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2005f). Re: Status of Wikimedia. wikipedia-l. Retrieved November 07, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=436FDD60.1060301@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2005g). Re: [wikien-l] Re: A neo-nazi wikipedia. wikien-l. Retrieved August 23, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=430B6975.9040906@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2005h). Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds. wikipedia-l. Retrieved May 04, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=4278DF44.1030905@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2005i). Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds. wikipedia-l. Retrieved May 02, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=427622EC.8010005@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2005j). Re: Wikipedia, Emergence, and The Wisdom of Crowds. wikipedia-l. Retrieved May 03, 2005 from http://marc.info/?i=4277C476.3040803@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2005k). Wikipedia and defamation: man apologizes after fake Wikipedia post. Air-l. Retrieved December 14, 2005 from http://listserv.aoir.org/pipermail/air-l-aoir.org/2005-December/008894.html.

Wales, J. (2006a). On ”digital Maoism”. Edge. Retrieved June 07, 2006 17:18 UTC from http://www.edge.org/discourse/digital_maoism.html.

Wales, J. (2006b). Re: Nazi userboxes. wikien-l. Retrieved December 01, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=4570B0FF.6030209@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2006c). Re: New York Times article. wikien-l. Retrieved June 20, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=44987D15.2070408@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2006d). Re: ”should not be written by an interested party”. wikien-l. Retrieved May 03, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=4458EF10.9060705@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2006e). Re: To: Jimmy Wales - Admin-driven death of Wikipedia. wikien-l. Retrieved June 04, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=44833A94.3080606@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2006f). Wikien-l] 2 Questions for Jimbo about WP:OFFICE and things that aren’t labeled WP:OFFICE. wikien-l. Retrieved April 24, 2006 from http://marc.info/?i=444CF750.7000300@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2006g). Wikipedia talk:neutral point of view. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 14, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia_talk:Neutral_point_of_view&oldid=69887768#WikiP.27s_.22Holy_Trinity.22.

Wales, J. (2007a). naturally occurring conflicts? Air-l. Retrieved March 28, 2007 14:47 UTC from http://listserv.aoir.org/pipermail/air-l-aoir.org/2007-March/012640.html.

Wales, J. (2007b). Re: Harassment sites. wikien-l. Retrieved October 24, 2007 from http://marc.info/?i=471F6053.4040806@wikia.com.

Wales, J. (2007c). Wikimania 2007 interview with Joseph Reagle.

Wall, L. (1999). Diligence, patience, and humility. In Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. O’Reilly, 1 edition. Retrieved February 23, 2007 from http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/larry.html.

Wallace, D. F. (2001). Tense present: democracy, English, and the wars over usage. Harper’s Magazine.

Walter (2007). The English language edition of Wikizine. Retrieved November 08, 2007 17:01 UTC from http://en.wikizine.org/.

Walther, J. B. (1996). Computer-mediated communication: impersonal, interpersonal, and hyperpersonal interaction. Communication Research, 23:1–43.

Walther, J. B., Gay, G., and Hancock, J. T. (2005). How do communication and technology researchers study the Internet? Journal of Communication. Retrieved September 22, 2005 from http://joc.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/55/3/632.

Weber, M. (1978). Economy and society: an outline of interpretive sociology (1914), volume 1. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Weber, S. (2004). The success of open source. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Webmaster (2007). KDE Women Homepage - Contact. KDE. Retrieved January 23, 2007 16:26 UTC from http://women.kde.org/contact/.

Weinberger, D. (2007). Everything is miscellaneous: the power of the new digital disorder. Times Books, New York.

Wells, H. (1933). The open conspiracy: blue prints for a world revolution (1928). In The Open Conspiracy and Other Writings. Waterlow & Sons, London. Retrieved September 20, 2006 from http://www.inlex.org/stories/wells/opencons.html.

Wells, H. (1934). Experiment in autobiography: discoveries and conclusions of a very ordinary brain (since 1866). The Macmillan Company, New York.

Wells, H. (1936). The Idea of a World Encyclopedia. Nature, 138:917–924. Retrieved February 26, 2005 from http://instruct.uwo.ca/mit/345/PDF/Worldencyclo.PDF.

Wells, H. (1938). World Brain. Methuen, London.

Wells, H. (2004). A modern utopia (1905). (6424). Retrieved September 20, 2006 from http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext04/mdntp10h.htm.

Wells, H. G., Huxley, J. S., and Wells, G. P. (1931). The science of life: a summary of contemporary knowledge about life and its possibilities I,II,III. Doubleday, Doran, Garden City, NY.

Wells, J. M. (1968). The circle of knowledge: An exhibition to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Newberry Library, Chicago.

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Wheeler, D. A. (2005). Why Open Source Software/Free Software (oss/fs)? Look at the numbers! Retrieved October 01, 2004 from http://www.dwheeler.com/oss_fs_why.html.

Wiegand, W. A. (1996). A biography of Melvil Dewey: irrepressible reformer. American Library Association, Chicago.

Wikiality (2006). Main Page. Retrieved October 23, 2006 from http://www.wikiality.com/index.php?title=Main_Page&oldid=30032.

WikiChix (2007). WikiChix. WikiChix. Retrieved January 12, 2007 22:04 UTC from http://wikichix.org/w/index.php?title=WikiChix&oldid=1651.

Wikimedia (2006a). Category:humor songs and poems. Wikimedia. Retrieved October 23, 2006 14:39 UTC from http://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Humor_songs_and_poems&oldid=386342.

Wikimedia (2006b). Don’t be dense. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 12, 2006 16:23 UTC from http://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Don%27t_be_dense&oldid=314371.

Wikimedia (2006c). Elections for the Board of Trustees of the Wikimedia Foundation, 2006/en. Wikimedia. Retrieved December 04, 2006 21:03 UTC from http://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elections_for_the_Board_of_Trustees_of_the_Wikimedia_Foundation%2C_2006/En&oldid=439005.

Wikimedia (2006d). Polls are evil. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 12, 2006 16:24 UTC from http://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polls_are_evil&oldid=327695.

Wikimedia (2007a). Conflicting Wikipedia philosophies. Wikimedia. Retrieved May 15, 2007 20:42 UTC from http://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Conflicting_Wikipedia_philosophies&.

Wikimedia (2007b). Steward policies. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 02, 2007 15:03 UTC from http://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Steward_policies&oldid=724037.

Wikimedia (2007c). Stewards. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 02, 2007 15:03 UTC from http://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stewards&oldid=733931.

Wikipedia (2002). Wikipedia:staying cool when the editing gets hot. Wikimedia. Retrieved May 30, 2007 19:19 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Staying_cool_when_the_editing_gets_hot&oldid=383300.

Wikipedia (2004a). Wikipedia:assume good faith. Wikimedia. Retrieved May 30, 2007 18:54 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Assume_good_faith&oldid=2617791.

Wikipedia (2004b). Wikipedia:etiquette. Wikimedia. Retrieved May 30, 2007 19:17 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Etiquette&oldid=2219358.

Wikipedia (2004c). Wikipedia:neutral point of view. Wikimedia. Retrieved March 05, 2004 from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Neutral_point_of_view&oldid=6042007.

Wikipedia (2005a). Wikipedia talk:assume good faith. Wikimedia. Retrieved May 30, 2007 18:55 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia_talk:Assume_good_faith&oldid=10213525.

Wikipedia (2005b). Wikipedia:administrators. Retrieved May 04, 2007 17:02 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Administrators&oldid=11508036.

Wikipedia (2006a). AWWDMBJAWGCAWAIFDSPBATDMTD. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 14:30 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Association_of_Wikipedians_Who_Dislike_Making_Broad_Judgements_About_the_Worthiness_of_a_General_Category_of_Article%2C_and_Who_Are_in_Favor_of_the_Deletion_of_Some_Particularly_Bad_Articles%2C_but_That_Doesn%27t_Mean_They_Are_Deletionist&oldid=322896.

Wikipedia (2006b). Benevolent Dictator for Life. Wikipedia. Retrieved January 04, 2006 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benevolent_Dictator_for_Life.

Wikipedia (2006c). History of Wikipedia. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 17:43 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Wikipedia&oldid=46899151.

Wikipedia (2006d). Interpedia. Wikimedia. Retrieved October 20, 2006 17:14 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Interpedia&oldid=73394880.

Wikipedia (2006e). Main page. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 17:43 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Main_Page&oldid=47246943.

Wikipedia (2006f). Meta:benevolent dictator. Wikipedia. Retrieved January 04, 2006 from http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Benevolent_dictator.

Wikipedia (2006g). Meta:talk:benevolent dictator. Wikipedia. Retrieved January 04, 2006 from http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Talk:Benevolent_dictator.

Wikipedia (2006h). Nupedia. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 17:43 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nupedia&oldid=46595663.

Wikipedia (2006i). User talk:susurrus. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 14:30 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_talk:Susurrus&oldid=25487741.

Wikipedia (2006j). User:raul654/raul’s laws. Wikimedia. Retrieved August 08, 2006 19:29 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Raul654/Raul%27s_laws&oldid=67278903.

Wikipedia (2006k). User:seth Ilys/Dot Project. Wikimedia. Retrieved August 22, 2006 20:59 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Seth_Ilys/Dot_Project&oldid=67572849.

Wikipedia (2006l). Wikipedia:administrators. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 17:43 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Administrators&oldid=47240234.

Wikipedia (2006m). Wikipedia:assume good faith. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 11, 2006 20:15 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Assume_good_faith&oldid=46719908.

Wikipedia (2006n). Wikipedia:assume the assumption of good faith. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 21, 2006 19:55 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Assume_the_assumption_of_good_faith&oldid=46390319.

Wikipedia (2006o). Wikipedia:blocking policy. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 17:43 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Blocking_policy&oldid=47260197.

Wikipedia (2006p). Wikipedia:blocking policy proposal. Wikimedia. Retrieved March 16, 2007 21:03 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Blocking_policy_proposal&oldid=85910798.

Wikipedia (2006q). Wikipedia:civility. Wikimedia. Retrieved May 28, 2006 16:07 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Civility&oldid=55584755.

Wikipedia (2006r). Wikipedia:community Portal. Wikimedia. Retrieved June 01, 2006 19:19 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Community_Portal&oldid=56291299.

Wikipedia (2006s). Wikipedia:deceased Wikipedians. Wikimedia. Retrieved August 22, 2006 20:34 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Deceased_Wikipedians&oldid=67250693.

Wikipedia (2006t). Wikipedia:don’t disrupt Wikipedia to illustrate a point. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 11, 2006 13:58 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Don%27t_disrupt_Wikipedia_to_illustrate_a_point&oldid=47772521.

Wikipedia (2006u). Wikipedia:editcountitis. Wikimedia. Retrieved December 04, 2006 20:52 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Editcountitis&oldid=89147735.

Wikipedia (2006v). Wikipedia:etiquette. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 17:43 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Etiquette&oldid=46844589.

Wikipedia (2006w). Wikipedia:five pillars. Wikimedia. Retrieved December 06, 2006 16:22 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Five_pillars&oldid=91970418.

Wikipedia (2006x). Wikipedia:neutral point of view. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 17:43 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Neutral_point_of_view&oldid=47268215.

Wikipedia (2006y). Wikipedia:no original research. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 17:43 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:No_original_research&oldid=46780169.

Wikipedia (2006z). Wikipedia:notability. Wikimedia. Retrieved December 22, 2006 20:49 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Notability&oldid=95766986.

Wikipedia (2006aa). Wikipedia:office Actions. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 14:30 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Office_Actions&oldid=46257186.

Wikipedia (2006ab). Wikipedia:please do not bite the newcomers. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 03, 2006 20:02 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Please_do_not_bite_the_newcomers&oldid=84697842.

Wikipedia (2006ac). Wikipedia:policy trifecta. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 14:30 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Policy_trifecta&oldid=40378162.

Wikipedia (2006ad). Wikipedia:schools’ FAQ. Wikimedia. Retrieved December 22, 2006 20:57 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Schools%27_FAQ&oldid=95135772.

Wikipedia (2006ae). Wikipedia:simple English Wikipedia. Wikimedia. Retrieved December 22, 2006 20:50 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Simple_English_Wikipedia&oldid=95787832.

Wikipedia (2006af). Wikipedia:verifiability. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 17:43 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Verifiability&oldid=46745639.

Wikipedia (2006ag). Wikipedia:what Wikipedia is not. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 17:43 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:What_Wikipedia_is_not&oldid=47184292.

Wikipedia (2006ah). Wikipedia:wikilove. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 11, 2006 13:54 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:WikiLove&oldid=32390047.

Wikipedia (2006ai). Wikipedia:wikipedia is not therapy. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 14:30 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Wikipedia_is_not_therapy&oldid=46275749.

Wikipedia (2006aj). Wikipedia:wikipediholic. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2006 17:43 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Wikipediholic&oldid=47176234.

Wikipedia (2006ak). Wikipedia:writing for the enemy. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 21, 2006 19:46 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Writing_for_the_enemy&oldid=49041942.

Wikipedia (2007). Blocking of Wikipedia in mainland China. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 03, 2007 16:29 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blocking_of_Wikipedia_in_mainland_China&oldid=168366696.

Wikipedia (2007ab). Charles Van Doren. Wikimedia. Retrieved September 21, 2007 15:27 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_Van_Doren&oldid=158910101.

Wikipedia (2007ac). Congressional staffer edits to Wikipedia. Wikimedia. Retrieved March 08, 2007 21:02 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Congressional_staffer_edits_to_Wikipedia&oldid=109060581.

Wikipedia (2007ad). Criticism of Wikipedia. Wikimedia. Retrieved March 27, 2007 19:42 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Criticism_of_Wikipedia&oldid=118252212.

Wikipedia (2007ae). Every time you masturbate... God kills a kitten. Wikimedia. Retrieved September 13, 2007 20:39 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Every_time_you_masturbate..._God_kills_a_kitten&oldid=157104187.

Wikipedia (2007af). Good faith. Wikimedia. Retrieved May 17, 2007 14:31 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Good_faith&oldid=128890878"title="Permanentlinktothisversionofthepage.

Wikipedia (2007ag). Help:checkuser. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 09, 2007 20:33 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:CheckUser&oldid=141475772.

Wikipedia (2007ah). Help:template. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 27, 2007 19:20 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Template&oldid=170121156.

Wikipedia (2007ai). Image:penny Arcade comic-20051216h.jpg. Wikimedia. Retrieved May 18, 2007 15:00 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Image:Penny_Arcade_comic-20051216h.jpg&oldid=128059883"title="Permanentlinktothisversionofthepage.

Wikipedia (2007aj). List of Buffy the Vampire Slayer episodes. Wikimedia. Retrieved May 22, 2007 21:29 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Buffy_the_Vampire_Slayer_episodes&oldid=132722671.

Wikipedia (2007ak). Portland Pattern Repository. Wikimedia. Retrieved June 22, 2007 18:51 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portland_Pattern_Repository&oldid=136308262.

Wikipedia (2007al). Seigenthaler controversy. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 06, 2007 13:42 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Seigenthaler_controversy&oldid=169194180.

Wikipedia (2007am). Talk:evolution. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2007 16:38 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Evolution&oldid=120622805.

Wikipedia (2007an). Talk:evolution/archive 2. Wikimedia. Retrieved February 07, 2007 22:42 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Evolution/Archive_2&oldid=95781264.

Wikipedia (2007ao). User:graft. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2007 20:01 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Graft&oldid=117319977.

Wikipedia (2007ap). User:jaranda/wikipedia’s first IRC chat. Wikimedia. Retrieved September 04, 2007 17:08 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Jaranda/Wikipedia%27s_first_IRC_chat&oldid=122268990.

Wikipedia (2007aq). User:salva31. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 06, 2007 16:56 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Salva31&oldid=118549019.

Wikipedia (2007ar). User:the Cunctator. Wikimedia. Retrieved January 12, 2007 22:32 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:The_Cunctator&oldid=76274237.

Wikipedia (2007as). Web 2.0. Wikimedia. Retrieved August 31, 2007 13:11 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Web_2.0&oldid=154564918.

Wikipedia (2007at). Wikipedia talk:assume good faith. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 10, 2007 22:28 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia_talk:Assume_good_faith&oldid=119194758.

Wikipedia (2007au). Wikipedia:10 things you did not know about Wikipedia. Wikimedia. Retrieved September 07, 2007 18:18 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:10_things_you_did_not_know_about_Wikipedia&oldid=155431119.

Wikipedia (2007av). Wikipedia:about. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 08, 2007 16:43 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:About&oldid=170122343.

Wikipedia (2007aw). Wikipedia:articles for deletion. Wikimedia. Retrieved May 15, 2007 21:10 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion&oldid=128043238.

Wikipedia (2007ax). Wikipedia:assume bad faith. Wikimedia. Retrieved May 18, 2007 14:27 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Assume_bad_faith&oldid=127274333.

Wikipedia (2007ay). Wikipedia:assume stupidity. Wikimedia. Retrieved May 18, 2007 14:27 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Assume_stupidity&oldid=102052925.

Wikipedia (2007az). Wikipedia:attribution. Wikimedia. Retrieved March 01, 2007 15:45 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Attribution&oldid=111837371.

Wikipedia (2007ba). Wikipedia:avoid instruction creep. Wikimedia. Retrieved March 27, 2007 19:42 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Avoid_instruction_creep&oldid=118096776.

Wikipedia (2007bb). Wikipedia:banning policy. Wikimedia. Retrieved March 16, 2007 20:41 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Banning_policy&oldid=115595742.

Wikipedia (2007bc). Wikipedia:be bold. Wikimedia. Retrieved August 13, 2007 14:52 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Be_bold&oldid=150720434.

Wikipedia (2007bd). Wikipedia:content forking. Wikimedia. Retrieved August 13, 2007 14:45 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Content_forking&oldid=144910303.

Wikipedia (2007be). Wikipedia:five pillars. Wikimedia. Retrieved October 05, 2007 19:15 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Five_pillars&oldid=162130089.

Wikipedia (2007bf). Wikipedia:list of administrators. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 08, 2007 16:46 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:List_of_administrators&oldid=170097284.

Wikipedia (2007bg). Wikipedia:list of shortcuts/project shortcuts. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 08, 2007 17:09 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:List_of_shortcuts/Project_shortcuts&oldid=168669287.

Wikipedia (2007bh). Wikipedia:meta. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 05, 2007 22:30 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Meta&oldid=118648488.

Wikipedia (2007bi). Wikipedia:million pool. Wikimedia. Retrieved September 07, 2007 17:47 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Million_pool&oldid=149380521.

Wikipedia (2007bj). Wikipedia:oversight. Wikimedia. Retrieved January 12, 2007 22:36 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Oversight&oldid=98604695.

Wikipedia (2007bk). Wikipedia:policies and guidelines. Wikimedia. Retrieved April 10, 2007 22:22 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Policies_and_guidelines&oldid=121662697.

Wikipedia (2007bl). Wikipedia:project namespace. Wikimedia. Retrieved December 19, 2007 18:27 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Project_namespace&oldid=174790757.

Wikipedia (2007bm). Wikipedia:red link. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 16, 2007 14:27 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Red_link&oldid=171608519.

Wikipedia (2007bn). Wikipedia:replies to common objections. Wikimedia. Retrieved September 27, 2007 14:44 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Replies_to_common_objections&oldid=159141692.

Wikipedia (2007bo). Wikipedia:wikilawyering. Wikimedia. Retrieved March 15, 2007 21:09 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:WikiLawyering&oldid=113216995.

Wikipedia (2007bp). Wikipedia:wikipedia Signpost/2007-01-15/2006 in review. Wikimedia. Retrieved January 23, 2007 14:48 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Wikipedia_Signpost/2007-01-15/2006_in_review&oldid=101894518.

Wikipedia (2007bq). Wikipedia:wikiproject. Wikimedia. Retrieved November 08, 2007 17:18 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:WikiProject&oldid=167898285.

Wikipedia (2007br). Wikiscanner. Wikimedia. Retrieved September 07, 2007 13:34 UTC from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=WikiScanner&oldid=156029747.

Williams, G. (2006). Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved November 17, 2006 16:49 UTC from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Greg_Williams.

Williams, R. (1983). Keywords: a vocabulary of culture and society. Oxford University Press, New York.

Williams, S. (2002). Free as in freedom: Richard Stallman’s crusade for free software. O’Reilly. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from http://www.softcatala.org/projectes/faif/llibre_ang/faif_1.html#SEC1.

Williamson, M. (2005). Re: Wikimedia Foundation Internal Radio System. wikipedia-l. Retrieved April 12, 2005 from http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?i=849f98ed050412011473cf4b91@mail.gmail.com.

Wilson, D. and Reynard, A. M. (1994). Interpedia frequently asked questions and answers. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from http://groups.google.de/groups?selm=CL9x0u.B4x%40acsu.buffalo.edu&output=gplain.

Wilson, F. (2003). Can compute, won’t compute: women’s participation in the culture of computing. New Technology, Work and Employment, 18(2):127–142. Retrieved November 15, 2006 from http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/1468-005X.00115.

Winchester, S. (1998). The professor and the madman. HarperCollins, New York.

Winchester, S. (2003). The meaning of everything: the story of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Winner, L. (1986). Do artifacts have politics? In The Whale and the Reactor, pages 18–39. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Retrieved February 02, 2005 from http://web.archive.org/web/20051217085219/http://www-personal.si.umich.edu/~rfrost/courses/Women+Tech/readings/Winner.html.

Woolgar, S. (1991). The turn to technology in social studies of science. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 16(1):20–50.

Yankelovich, D. (2001). The Magic of Dialogue. The Nonprofit Quarterly, 8(3). Retrieved November 24, 2004 from http://www.nonprofitquarterly.org/section/82.html.

Yeo, R. R. (2001). Encyclopedic visions: scientific dictionaries and enlightenment culture. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Yoo, Y. and Alavi, M. (2004). Emergent leadership in virtual teams: what do emergent leaders do? Information and Organization, 14(1):27–58. Retrieved June 28, 2007 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/d6851r0817386065/.

Yukl, G. A. (1981). Leadership in organizations. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1 edition.

Zakon, R. H. (2005). Hobbes’ Internet timeline v8.1. Retrieved January 06, 2006 from http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/.

ZenZagg (2004). The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. everything2. Retrieved December 19, 2007 from http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1525826.