SocialSyll_Readings090103.doc ( 58880 Bytes )
New York University Professor Caroline Persell
Fall 2003 Department of Sociology
Socialization, G93.2211 (09/01/03)
Socialization refers to the processes of preparing "newcomers" to become members of existing groups or to take on roles and positions in society. It usually includes how people come to think, feel, and act in ways considered appropriate in those groups, positions, and roles. Viewed from the group or society's perspective, it is a process of member replacement. Considerable research in socialization has focused on how individuals acquire basic cognitive and attitudinal features needed for social life, including learning language and how to interact with others. Functionalist and interpretive sociologists emphasize somewhat different features of socialization. Functionalists stress the primary importance of society in shaping how individuals think and behave, downplaying how individuals' needs, desires, values, and behaviors may not parallel society's goals. Functionalism also overlooks the complexity and variety in society that can promote competing values and behaviors. Interactionists suggest the more interactive nature of socialization, with individuals continually negotiating their definitions of situations with others. Other theorists, including Foucault, stress the importance of networks of power within which individuals are embedded as shaping forces in the very constitution of the self.
Socialization has sometimes been used interchangeably with internalization, but it is analytically more useful to conceive of socialization as consisting of contexts, contents, and processes that may to varying degrees affect outcomes, including the possible internalization of values, norms, behaviors.
Some of the questions that will guide our study include: How do sociologists and psychologists differ in their approaches to socialization? What is identity work, and how does it relate to socialization? How does socialization relate to social inequalities? What are the limitations of socialization as an explanation for inequality, attitudes, behaviors, and identities? Can sociologists explain why resocialization occurs under some conditions but not others?
Organization of the Course
This course will be conducted as a writing-intensive, seminar style class. We will begin by reading selected theorists of socialization, consider some classical studies of socialization, and read studies of socialization dealing with emotion work; class, race, and gender socialization and inequality; and socialization for occupations and professions.
Besides completing the weekly readings, students will be expected to post on the course website in Blackboard brief one-page memos on readings the day before we meet. Students will also conduct a term project that advances their interest in some aspect of socialization. This could take one of the following forms: a review and synthesis of relevant theory and research on a particular problem that raises new questions for research, a proposal for a research study, or a paper on a research study they have conducted. Grades will be based on: quality of weekly memos (1/3), quality of class participation (1/3), and quality of final oral and written reports (1/3). The final paper is likely to be between 20 and 30 pages long.
Core Reading Assignments (items with a * are required)
Theories of Socialization:
Brim, Orville G., Jr. 1968. "Adult Socialization." Pp. 555-62 in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 14. (LR=Library Reserve)
*Goslin, David A. (ed.) 1969. Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand-McNally. *Ch. 1, Table of Contents, and Ch. 4, "The Concept of Internalization" (D=in folder in Department Lounge, 269 Mercer St., 4th Flr.)
*Wentworth, William. 1980. Context and Understanding: An Inquiry into Socialization Theory. New York: Elsevier. *Introduction, Ch. 1 (D)
*"Socialization" entry from the Dictionary of the Social Sciences, 2002. Craig Calhoun (ed.), New York Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 447-448.
*Mead, George Herbert. 1934/1972. Mind, Self, and Society, passim, and especially the section, "The Realization of the Self in the Social Situation," pp. 200-209 in Charles W. Morris (ed.) edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (D)
*Wrong, Dennis. 1961. "The Oversocialized Conception of Man in Modern Sociology." American Sociological Review 42:32-55. (D, Jstor).
*Elkind, David. 1994. "Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man." Pp. 46-53 in Leonard Cargan & Jeanne H. Ballantine (eds.), 1994. Sociological Footprints, Sixth Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. (D)
Classical Studies in Socialization:
*Davis, Kingsley. 1940. "Extreme Social Isolation of a Child." American Journal of Sociology 45 1940:554-64 and "Final Note on a Case of Extreme Isolation." American
Journal of Sociology 50 (March 1947):432-37. (D, Jstor)
*Kohn, Melvin L. 1976. "Social Class and Parental Values: Another Confirmation of the Relationship." American Sociological Review 41:538-45. (Jstor)
*Sullivan, Teresa A. 1991. "Making the Graduate Curriculum Explicit." Teaching Sociology 19 (July): 408-413. (D).
Socialization of Emotions:
*Hochschild, Arlie. 1983/2003. The Managed Heart. Berkeley, CA: Univ. of Calif. Press. (BS=ordered for NYU bookstore)
*Hochschild, Arlie. 2003. The Commercialization of Intimate Life. Berkeley, CA: Univ. of Calif. Press, Parts One and Two, pp. 1-137. (BS, LR)
*Hochschild, Arlie. 2003. The Commercialization of Intimate Life. Berkeley, CA: Univ. of Calif. Press, Parts Three through Five, pp. 141-254.
Socialization and Inequality:
*Cookson, Peter W., Jr. and Caroline Hodges Persell. 1985. Preparing for Power. New York: Basic Books. (BS, LR)
*Lareau, Annette. 2002. "Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black Families and White Families." American Sociological Review 67:747-776. (D)
Lareau, Annette. 2003. Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
*MacLeod, Jay. 1995. Ain't No Makin' It. Second Edition. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. (BS, LR)
*Ogbu, John U. 2003. Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (BS, LR)
*Stanton-Salazar, R. 1997. "A Social Capital Framework for Understanding the Socialization of Ethnic Minority Children and Youths." Harvard Educational Review 67:1-39. (D)
*Lorber, Judith. 1996. "'Night to His Day': The Social Construction of Gender." Pp. 91-104 in Susan J. Ferguson (Ed.), Mapping the Social Landscape, First Edition. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. (D)
*Messner, Michael. 1996. "Boyhood, Organized Sports, and the Construction of Masculinities." Pp. 104-119 in Susan J. Ferguson (Ed.), Mapping the Social Landscape. First Edition. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. (D)
*Risman, Barbara. 2002. "Gender as Structure." Pp. 329-39 in Susan J. Ferguson (Ed.), Mapping the Social Landscape, Third Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. (D)
*Thorne, Barrie and Zella Luria. 1992. "Sexuality and Gender in Children's Daily Worlds." Pp. 49-55 in John W. Heeren and Marylee Mason (eds.). Windows on Society, Second Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury. (D)
Socialization for Occupations and Professions:
*Becker, Howard S. and J.W. Carper. 1956a. "The elements of identification with an occupation." American Sociological Review 21:341-48. Jstor.
*. 1956b. "The development of identification with an occupation." American Journal of Sociology 61:289-98. Jstor.
*Dyer, Gwynne. 2002. "Anybody's Son Will Do." Pp. 153-164 in Susan J. Ferguson (Ed.), Mapping the Social Landscape, Third Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. (D)
*Gibson, J. William. 1996. "Warrior Dreams: Violence and Manhood in Post-Vietnam America." Pp. 74-82 in Susan J. Ferguson (Ed.), Mapping the Social Landscape. First Edition. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. (D)
*Gottlieb, D. 1961. "Processes of socialization in American graduate schools." Social Forces 40:124-31. Jstor.
*Granfield, Robert. 1992. Making Elite Lawyers. New York: Routledge. Chs. 3-8. (LR)
*Zuckerman, Harriet. 1977. Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States. New York: Free Press, Ch. 4, "Masters and Apprentices in Science." (LR, D)
*Turner, Ralph H. 1976. "The Real Self: From Institution to Impulse." American Journal of Sociology 81(5): 989-1016. (D, Jstor)
Others may be announced.
12/3: Oral Presentations on your Projects
Other General Information
You will all need to get email accounts at NYU and activate your NYU Home Page, if you haven't already done so. If you do not have an NYU Home account you can set one up by launching a browser and going to the URL: "start.nyu.edu" If you prefer to receive email at another account, you may put a forwarding email address in your home account. If you have any questions, call 998-3333, the ITS Client Service Center, or stop by one of the ITS student labs: http://www.nyu.edu/its/labs
Certain electronic data archives are proprietary and NYU pays a licensing fee for students and faculty to use them. Therefore the NYU server must be able to identify you as an NYU user. If you log in remotely through AOL or some other service provider, you are not identified as part of NYU. In such a case you will need to set up a "proxy" connection. See http://www.nyu.edu/its/howto/connect/proxy/ to see how to do this. If you are having any difficulties do not hesitate to ask for help.
My Office Hours are Tues. 3:30-4:30 and Wed. 5-6, in the Sociology Department, 269 Mercer Street, fourth floor, room 441. My telephone number is 998-8350. You may also leave a message on my voice mail. Please feel free to drop by during office hours or to make an appointment if you can't come during office hours. You may also reach me via email at: email@example.com
The following books have been ordered and are in stock in the NYU Bookstore:
Cookson, Peter W., Jr. and Caroline Hodges Persell. 1985. Preparing for Power. New York: Basic Books.
Hochschild, Arlie. 1983/2003. The Managed Heart. Berkeley, CA: Univ. of Calif. Press.
Hochschild, Arlie. 2003. The Commercialization of Intimate Life. Berkeley, CA: Univ. of Calif. Press.
MacLeod, Jay. 1995. Ain't No Makin' It. Second Edition. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Ogbu, John U. 2003. Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
I have requested that books by the following authors be placed on reserve in Bobst library:
George Herbert Mead
Melvin L. Kohn
William M. Wentworth
Arlie Hochschild, The Commercialization of Intimate Life.
John U. Ogbu
Peter Cookson & Caroline Persell
Other articles and smaller excerpts will be placed in an accordion file marked with the name of this course in the Sociology Dept. Lounge. You may borrow them for up to one hour to make a photo copy. Please leave a note in the file indicating when you took it out. Many of the journal articles are also available electronically through Jstor or other electronic journal services through Bobst library.
SocializaProject090303.doc ( 38400 Bytes )
New York University Professor Caroline Persell
Fall 2003 Department of Sociology
Project and Assignments 9/3/03
This description has four parts: 1) Types of projects you can do, 2) Elements of the Project and the Final Report, 3) A Timetable of Tasks and Intermediate Assignments, and 4) Useful Library Resources and Links.
Types of Projects You Can Do for this Course
You can do a review and synthesis of relevant theory and research on a particular problem that raises new questions for research, 2) a proposal for a research study, or 3) a research paper on a study you are conducting or have conducted. The type of project you decide to do will affect the relative emphasis you put on each of the elements below. See me if you have questions about which ones are most relevant to your project.
Elements of the Project and the Final Report
I. A statement of your question. What is already known about this question in the research literature?
II. Definitions of the relevant concepts in your question and articulation of relevant theories. Statement of hypotheses or questions based on those concepts and theories. Who or what are you going to compare? Why?
III. What data would be most useful for addressing your question? What relevant data have you found that you could analyze to address your question? How do you interpret those data? What are the limitations of the data?
IV. What are the limitations of the data and analysis you have?
V. How does what you have found relate to what you have learned in this course?
VI. What new sociological questions does your work suggest?
VII. A full bibliography of all sources cited, using American Sociological Association style.
Parts I-V need to be connected. The final paper needs to have coherence, flow, advance an argument, and support it with data (of various kinds).
Timeline, Tasks, and Intermediate Assignments
9/17: Turn in a brief typed description of the question you want to address and your current thoughts about how you will approach the project.
9/24 Get back your statements with comment and questions from me.
10/1 Work on: 1) Refining your question(s), 2) defining the relevant concepts, 3) articulating the sociological theories you think may be relevant, and 4) stating hypotheses or questions based on those concepts and theories. 5) Indicate who or what you think you may be going to compare and say why. Turn in a typed revised statement by 10/1 of your current reflections on these five points.
10/8: Search Sociological Abstracts for theoretical and research abstracts that relate to your question. Turn in copies of your abstracts by 10/8. Keep a copy to work on next week.
10/15 Work on refining the key terms used in your searches, sorting the abstracts you have found with respect to whether they are theoretical or research papers. Read the most relevant research papers and analyze them, using the eleven questions listed below. By Wed. 10/15 turn in at least four analyzed abstracts that are relevant for your project. Do you need to find more abstracts for your project?
|Roles you will be playing
in the course
ROLES_YOU_WILL_BE_PLAYING_IN_THE_COURSE.doc ( 21504 Bytes )
New York University Professor Caroline Persell
Fall 2003 Department of Sociology
Socialization, G93.2211 (09/03/03)
ROLES YOU WILL BE PLAYING IN THE COURSE
Each week every member of the class will make a posting not to exceed one (1) page, on the Blackboard (BB) site for our course, under the discussion groups tab. (See me if you have never used BB.)
Your posting should address the following three questions:
1) What were the most important things you learned from the readings for the day?
2) What was murky or difficult to understand about the readings?
3) What new sociological questions do the readings suggest to you?
Postings are due no later than 5 p.m. Tues. (It goes without saying that you should proofread, spell check, and if necessary use Grammatik or some other grammar checker before posting your one-page papers.) Everyone should read everyone else's postings before class on Wed. and come to class prepared to discuss the readings and the postings. Everyone is expected to contribute to each class discussion, and anyone who has not spoken will be called on.
Each week, a different one of you will be the discussion leader who will guide and direct our discussion of the readings, pulling themes and questions from the postings, raising new questions for discussion, linking readings with other theory and research (either from this course or other courses), linking theoretical ideas with field observations from the social world, and generally helping us to grapple with, and critically analyze, the ideas we are encountering. If you wish to prepare handouts, overheads, or anything else that you think will be helpful to our discussion, please feel free to do so. I do suggest as a minimum that you prepare written discussion questions.